Compiled by THL Isabelle de Foix


General Research Sites

Daily Life Sites

Arts and Sciences Sites

Literary Sites

Celtic Studies Sites

Viking Studies Sites

Slavic and Eastern European Studies Sites

Middle Eastern Studies Sites

Warriors' Sites

Life in the SCA Sites


University professors, students, former students and general medieval history nuts run these sites. Their content reflects the areas in which these people did their research. The subject matter runs the gamut of the Middle Ages themselves. Some of these sites are strictly political history but plenty of them contain interesting social history as well. Please don't think these sites are only for scholars, because they're not! Do not miss the visually stunning page about the Battle of Hastings! It's an amazing site for warrior, scholar, and any other interested party alike.

Online Reference Book for Medieval Studies—This is an excellent resource page for the medieval researcher. There are many primary sources and some excellent secondary sources as well.

Internet Medieval Sourcebook--This is an excellent research site, containing many primary sources. It's huge!

Labyrinth: This is another excellent overall Medieval Studies site from Georgetown University.

It's Netserf! The Ultimate Connection for Medieval Resources! The site includes archeology, architecture, art, people, music, history, women, law, literature...if it's medieval, it's here! Want some news? Check out headlines like "DNA used in attempt to solve Christian mystery", "Archologists unearth unique objects in Veliky Novgorod", and much more!

The ECOLE Initiative--This huge site, the Encyclopedia of Early Church History on the WWW, contains articles, primary sources, mailing lists, and many other medieval resources.

Gutenberg Digital—This page was originally issued as a CD-ROM by the Gottingen State and University Library for private study only. It contains the text of the Gottingen Bible, published by Gutenberg in 1454. It also contains a biographical sketch of Johannes Gutenberg, a selection of well-known printed Bible verses compared to the original Greek and Hebrew texts, a description of the technology of Gutenberg’s printing press, and much more. This is a must-see—it’s like going to a museum!

The Great Hall of Odin's Castle of Dreams and Legends--This site is a *fantastic* source of all things medieval.

The history of Salic Law—This is the story of the impact of Salic Law on French politics. It was invoked several times to prevent claimants to the French throne that dignity because it forbade inheritance through a female ancestor.

The Salic Law—This is another, earlier text of Salic law; it dates from around 500 C.E.

Battle of Hastings, 1066. This site contains maps and commentary about the history of England leading up to this pivotal battle as well as information about the battle. It has the most incredible imagery I've ever seen on the Internet, period. Check it out!

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle—This document was originally compiled on the orders of King Alfred the Great of Wessex around 890. Anonymous writers added it to until the middle of the twelfth century. This translation dates from 1823.

The Domesday Book Online--Well, actually, not quite, even though that's the name of this site. The site contains much information from the Domesday Book, including place names and the names of landowners in England at the time of its compilation (1085-1087).

This site contains the genealogy of French royalty from the House of Capet (ascended throne 987 C.E.) to the House of Bourbon, overthrown in 1848.

Charlemagne's Empire at his death, 814 C.E. Charlemagne's Empire at his death reached from Brittany and the Spanish marches to the Croats, Czechs and other Slavs of Central and Eastern Europe. It included the entire panorama of the Continental Germanic peoples.

This is a very informative page about medieval Normandy.

Gregory of Tours, "History of the Franks". Gregory of Tours (c. 539--594 C.E.)was a writer of early France. This book is one of the most important texts of history from the early Middle Ages. It tells the story of the development of the Christian state of France complete with stories of miracles and such. This is an expression of the temper of the times.

Hus, Luther, Gutenberg: Masters of History. This is an essay about the difference Gutenberg's printing press made between the influence of Czech religious reformist polemicist Jan Hus (c. 1370--1415) and German church reformer Martin Luther (1483--1546).

The Red Kaganate--This site contains a ton of information on the Turko-Mongol world of the Middle Ages. The site contains information on many of the nations of the steppe peoples, including the Khazars, Mongols, Bulgars, the Magyars, and others too numerous to mention here. Sometimes you've got to be a bit patient with this site; it's a GeoCities site and I just got a "This site has exceeded its allocated data transfer capacity" message. In these cases the site is restored to service in an hour.

Timeline of the Eleventh Century--This site contains links and references to the important events of the eleventh century.

Augustine of Hippo: His Life and Works. This site is all about the fascinating historical figure Augustine, called St. Augustine by Roman Catholics. The site dates from 1994 and includes texts and translations of Augustine's works, commentaries, research materials, essays, images of Augustine, and much more.

Decree of Ferdinand and Isabella, from 1492, ordering all Jews to either convert to Christianity or leave Spain. The site includes the full text of the decree and an image of the original Edict signed by Ferdinand and Isabella.

Account of the expulsion of the Jews from Spain by Ferdinand and Isabella, originally written in Hebrew by an Italian Jew.

Meet your not-so-friendly local Inquisitor! Bernard Gui (served 1307--1323) was the Inquisitor in Umberto Eco's "Name of the Rose". This is a description of his Inquisitorial procedures.

Peter Abelard (1079-1142)was a famous philosopher and teacher, better known in these escapist times as the lover of Heloise. This site is all about this fascinating medieval figure, one of the founders of the University of Paris, now the Sorbonne.

Les Seigneurs de Bohon (The Noblemen of Bohun). This is a list of Norman French aristocrats of England. They played a crucial role in the foundation of Anglo-Norman England.

The Jews of medieval Exeter--This is a well-researched study of Jewish life in medieval Exeter, a town in southern England.

The origins of Switzerland--In 1291, the people of three Alpine regions, known as Uri, Unterwalden, and Schwyz, signed a treaty called "The Eternal Bond of Brothers" to protect each other against foreigners with designs on submitting them to their rule. These included the powerful Austrian house of Habsburg, who unsuccessfully tried to conquer these people. The people chose the name of one of these districts, Schwyz, as the name for their country--Switzerland to us. Four manuscripts of this treaty, all written in Latin by an anonymous scribe on that fateful day, 1 August, 1291, are still extent. One of these manuscripts is in a museum in Bern. It's also on-line here in English translation.

This is a map of late medieval Paris.

"Parens scientiarum" (Latin, "mother of sciences") was a papal decree recognizing the authority of the teaching guild in Paris, and its independence from the bishop of Paris. Issued in 1231, this was a historic document in the development of the guild into the University of Paris. The name "University" was from the Latin "universitas" meaning "guild".

Medieval Amsterdam--This page is about the origins of this great Dutch city. These origins involved the building of the first of Holland's famous dikes.

Capitulary of Charlemagne—Issued in 802 C.E, this document defined the legal structure of Charlemagne’s Empire. This is a very good example of early period Frankish law.

Historical Overview of the Inquisition--This is a cursory essay on the organization and history of the Inquisition.

The Rise and Fall of Markets in Medieval Southeast England--This is a scholarly paper, written by Mavis Mate for the Canadian Journal of History, about markets in the southeastern part of England in the Middle Ages and their connection to economic life in general.

Virtual Worlds in Archeology Initiative--This is part of an effort by archeologists to actually recreate buried medieval towns using archeological technology. This site covers the efforts being made to this effect in Finland's only significant medieval town, Turku.

Medieval Universities and Alchemy--This site contains an essay on the uneasy relationship between alchemy and medieval universities.

Foundation of the University of Heidelberg, 1386--This page, from the Avalon Project site, is a reproduction of the document that was drafted when this famous German university was founded. It includes the intention, the structure and the rules of the university.

The Division of the Carolingian Empire, 817 C.E. This ordinance, put out by one of Charlemagne’s sons, Louis the Pious, followed Frankish custom in leaving property to all male offspring. This fragmented the Empire.

Golden Bull of Charles IV, 1356. Charles of Luxembourg, King of Bohemia, became Holy Roman Emperor in 1350. This is the text of his edict, or "bull", that defined the succession of the Holy Roman Emperors.

Saxo Grammaticus ("Saxo the Learned") was a Danish historian who lived between 1150 and 1220. He wrote a history of the Danish people in Latin called "Gesta Danorum" ("Deeds of the Danes"). An English translation is reproduced on this site. Of course you've got to take it all with a grain of salt; it's largely based on Scandinavian folklore which had been an oral tradition. This book, ncidentally, contains the earliest written story of Hamlet. In fact, that part of the story is also reproduced below in the Literary category. On with the show.....

This page contains a biography of Gerbert of Aurillac (c. 955--1003), from Auvergne, France, a very talented, interesting medieval personage who became Pope.

Timeline of the Steppe Peoples—The steppes are a very large area of flat grassland extending east from the Vienna area to China. Over the course of many millennia many nomads roamed the steppes. Many of these people came from the east and settled in Eastern and Central Europe. This timeline starts with the prehistoric period and chronicles the development of tribes and confederations (the Avars, Huns, Bulgars, ad infinitum), and even the genesis of political disputes between these tribes.

The Electric Grosseteste--This site, which is still under construction, is dedicated to the study of the life and works of one of England's great medieval scholars and theologians, Robert Grosseteste (c. 1170--1253). Born in humble circumstances in Stowe, Suffolk, Grosseteste acquired an excellent education and produced some theological and philosophical masterpieces. A few of these are available for reading and downloading from this site. If the information isn't there yet, plans are in the works to have it on this site in the future. Stay tuned!

Marsilio Ficino (1433-1499) was an Italian Renaissance scholar and philosopher who was patronized by the Medici. This essay describes his life's work and his far-reaching influence. Ficino, incidentally, coined the term "Platonic love".

ENGLISC listserver page. This is the page for a listserver that was organized for the study of Old English. The site also contains links to Old English texts, projects, a glossary, and more.

Medieval Coins--This site contains photographs and explanations of medieval French coins. These include royal coins, feudal coins, ecclesiastical coins, and Crusader Land coins.

Normans in South Wales, 1070—1117. This online book discusses the land, people, economy, and social and political structure of Wales during this period. The book comments on the impact of the Norman Conquest on Wales.

Roger Bacon (1214—1292) was a scientist who was the precursor of modern experimental science. Experimental science was a sharp departure from the "authority-quotation" proof method (use of an "authority" like Aristotle or Galen to prove a proposition) which hindered science in the Middle Ages and Renaissance. This site contains his "Tract of the Tincture and Oil of Antimony", which contains his philosophy of alchemy, as well as treatments for leprosy, stroke, epilepsy, and gout.

Portraits of twelve great medieval Islamic scientists, along with the fields they contributed to. This site is by Professor Jameed Abdel-reheem Ead of the Department of Chemistry at the University of Cairo.

Rome Reborn: Renaissance humanists. The word "humanist" is used for Renaissance scholars because they were primarily interested in the study of human beings as individuals. Earlier scholars had approached the concept of humanity in a much more collective and community-oriented context. The humanists attempted to use the classics of the past, the great literature of ancient Greece and Rome, in the hopes of making the world a better place in which to live. Their primary goal was the dignifying of the human being. This site contains concise information about the leading humanists of the Renaissance.

Jeanne La Pucelle (Joan of Arc) and the Dying God—This is an interesting online booklet which explores a theory that Jeanne La Pucelle, known to us as Joan of Arc (1412—1431) was a member of an ancient pagan faith and that her death was a ritual sacrifice.

This site contains a great picture of the Cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris, along with some history of this great church.

This site is a chronology of the Crusades. This is a cursory dateline of the Crusades for the novice researcher. The site contains useful links and references for more in-depth research.

Islamic and Christian Spain in the early Middle Ages—This online book deals with life in early medieval Spain. The topics of the book include society and the economy, agriculture, settlements, urbanization and commerce, ethnic relations, and much more.

The Hanseatic League was a mercantile organization comprised of groups of merchants in in Northern European cities which promoted their business interests. It was founded in the middle of the thirteenth century and included the cities of northern Europe. This site contains an essay on the history of the League.

This site contains a brief biographical sketch of Andreas Vesalius (1514—1564), the Flemish-born scientist who is today known as the "father of anatomy".

The Rise of Feudalism, 850—1000 C.E. This site contains text covering the rise of the feudal system. The word "feudal" is from the Old German "vieh", which means "cow", the measure of wealth in this period.

Medieval Demographics Made Easy—This site describes an imaginary medieval landscape drawing on research done on England, Germany, France and Italy between the twelfth and the fourteenth centuries.

Virtual History of Venice—This site contains a time line of the history of this fascinating city. It starts with its origins as a marsh inhabited by Italians fleeing Attila the Hun’s armies ((452) and continues throughout our time period.

The URL for Home Page!



Medieval universities--This is an essay about medieval universities.

Peter Abelard (1079--1142): "History of My Calamities". This is Peter Abelard's autobiography, although it's written in the form of a letter. It was the first autobiography to be composed in the Middle Ages since Augustine's fifth-century "Confessions". It shows the growing social acceptability of belief in the individual, to reach its culmination in the Renaissance.

Information on Cluny Abbey. This site contains information on Cluny Abbey, one of the greatest of medieval monastic institutions.

Medieval Sourcebook: Annals of Xanten, 845--853. This text, from what is now the Netherlands, illustrates the hardships of life at what is commonly considered the low point of Western European civilization.

Educating the Aristocracy in Late Medieval England--This is an on-line article from a history periodical about the philosophy and practicing of educating England's elite in the late Middle Ages.

Hunting in the Middle Ages. This is an essay on medieval nobility pursuing a hobby. Does that sound familiar?

This is a glossary of medieval castle terminology.

Chaiya's Sephardic World--In the Middle Ages, a "Sephardic" Jew was a Jew from the Iberian lands. This site reproduces the world of the Jews of medieval Spain, and contains much advice on recreating it in the SCA.

Economic and Social Value of Jewelry in the Middle Ages. The site also contains information about medieval jewelry itself.

A Medieval Love Story--This site contains the story of Abelard and Heloise, one of the great love stories of the Middle Ages.

Subservience of Women in Medieval Thought. This page contains passages from medieval scholars concerning the low status of women in ordinary medieval life.

Glossary of Ecclesiastical terms--This glossary contains definitions of terms from all aspects of medieval church life, including church buildings, abbeys, religious orders, offices, prayers, and much more.

Richer of Rheims: A Journey to Chartres. This is the story of a monk's journey from Rheims to Chartres to attend school. It illustrates the difficulty of travel in tenth-century France.

Florentine Chronicle of the Black Death—This site contains a description of life during the Black Death in Florence in 1348. The site also includes an estimate of the number of deaths for the period covered as well as ordinances passed by officials as a result of the catastrophe.

Glossary of manorial terms--This page contains definitions of everything found on a medieval noble's estate.

Catharist Initiation Rite--This page contains the text of a ritual used to initiate new members of the Catharist faith. This faith became so popular in southern France that a crusade was held to stamp it out.

Timeline of the Hundred Years' War--This site contains a timeline of both political events and developments in everyday life (i.e, the first mention of the sport of tennis).

L'Abbaye de Fontenay, founded in 1118, is one of the oldest Cistercian monasteries in the world. It is situated in a beautiful valley in Burgundy, France. This is its Web site. The site includes a virtual tour of the monastery, including its dormitory, bakery, dormitory, chapel, forge, and heating room. Fontenay was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1981.

Table Manners in the Thirteenth Century--This quote from "The Romance of the Rose", written by Jean de Meung, gives instructions on table manners in thirteenth century France. Read what de Meung says about the hostess--none too flattering. This is what de Meung thought of women in general.

Medieval Society and Culture--This site contains graphic information about everyday life in the Middle Ages. It's very informative and fun to read.

This site contains extensive information about life in Paris during the reign of Philippe Auguste (reigned 1180--1223).

Life of the Students at the University of Paris--This thirteenth-century text alleges that most students in Paris led immoral lives and were not interested in study. Obviously many Parisians felt this way; they had frequent disputes with the students. The students, for their part, claimed that the Parisians were rip-off landlords.

In this page, Agobard of Lyons, a Carolingian scholar, denounces contemporary superstitions about the weather.

In this account a wife files suit to get her husband back.

The family tree of the French monarchy, from the Capetians (mounted throne in 987 C.E.) to the abolition of the monarchy.

This page contains a cursory essay on the history of chess, with an emphasis on how each piece represents people in medieval society.

Mythical Plants of the Middle Ages—This site contains a collection of essays about plants that never existed, but were widely believed to exist in the Middle Ages.

This is an essay about tennis in the Middle Ages.

This is a short explanation of the medieval precursor to our modern games of football and soccer. It was called "gameball".

Mapping Margery Kempe--This site is about the famous, or infamous, saint or eccentric (or both) woman from Bishop's Lynn, England, who infuriated, confused, excited and mystified people of her era--a medieval VIP, if you will, especially in her own mind.

Elmet's Mediaeval Era--This is a site that's currently under construction. The site already contains interesting information on place names in England, battles, kings, and a list of courses at a medieval feast. When this site is completed it'll be one of the best medieval sites I've ever seen.

St. Francis of Assisi’s "Sermon to the Birds". St. Francis of Assisi (c. 1182—1226) was one of the most popular saints of the Middle Ages. Many stories were told about him, many of them reflecting his love of nature. These included a charming story that he once preached a sermon to his feathered friends. The story and the alleged sermon are on this site.

Regia Anglorium was a Latin term used by writers of early period England when referring to their native land. It means "Kingdoms of the English" and is the name of a modern medieval re-enactment society. Members of Regia Anglorium value authenticity above all else and reconstruct an early period England straight from the lives of the Angles. Saxons, Jutes, Vikings, and other peoples who coalesced into the English nation. Visit a fictional pre-Conquest manor, Drengham, on this site; you might also want to check out a fictional estate, Wichamstow. Both of these are brilliant visual displays of life in a well-defined time and place. This is an early period persona’s virtual paradise.

The Art of Courtly Love. Andreas Cappelanus wrote these rules of courtly love at the court of Marie de Champagne, the daughter of Eleanor of Aquitaine between 1174 and 1186.

Horrors! Here's a picture of Jan Hus getting burned at the stake as an alleged heretic in 1415. He is surrounded by clerics and armored soldiers. On his hat is a medieval symbol for a heretic. Not for the faint of heart.

This site contains 180 pictures of royalty and nobility feasting, cooks, kitchens, cooking pans, servers, workers on lunch break, and much more. All of these images are completely period.

The New Forest is a hunting preserve in Hampshire, England. It was first designated as an official "forest" by William the Conqueror in 1079. In the Middle Ages the word "forest" did not mean "woods" as it does today; rather, it was a preserves area of land on which the animals hunted by the royal family were not disturbed by outsiders. These regulations were known as the "forest law" and were a great burden on the local peasantry, who often barely lived at the subsistence level. The Merovingian kings of France established the first forests in the sixth century and William brought the concept to England. This site contains the history, pictures, and other information about the New Forest, which is still maintained by the British Crown today.

Plague and Public Health in Renaissance Italy—This site contains primary accounts of the Black Death in Italy.

Medieval Technology Pages—This assembly of pages is nothing short of amazing. It includes a timeline of the inventions and first mentions of a great number of practical items used in the Middle Ages, including paper, horse-shoes, heavy plows, horizontal looms, glass mirrors, and let’s not forget those useful rat-traps. The pages also contain a subject index.

This site contains a biographical sketch of Christine de Pizan, the first European professional lady writer. It's from a book called "Women Defamed and Women Defended: An Anthology of Medieval Texts". It also contains several excerpts of her works, featuring her spirited medieval feminism.

This site contains a detailed essay on the history of heraldry in medieval England.

Age of Charles V of France (1338—1380)—This site contains 1000 period illuminations of people at work, at play, and some of the things they learned in school.

Medieval Women: Scriptorium Image Browser--This excellent site is packed with useful and interesting information. Check out period manuscripts of famous medieval books, multimedia pages, works by period authors, both male and female, on various issues of their day, pictures of French garb, and more. Some of these reproductions of these works are so period because someone forgot to modernize the spelling!

Geoffrey Chaucer page—This page contains information about Geoffrey Chaucer (c. 1340—1400). It has links to pages about meals and manners, including the feasts of the nobility. There is an expense account for an embassy from Aragon who spent time in England in 1415. There are also essays about court life, tournaments, and women.

This excerpt from the French poem "La Roman de la Rose" is taken from the Chaucer Page. It is an example of misogyny from this popular poem, written in the thirteenth century by two poets, that so vexed Christine de Pizan. It was also a widely held view of women held by male writers in the Middle Ages.

Excerpt from Christine de Pizan's "City of Ladies". In this reproduction, Christine discussed men who did not think women should be educated and why she disagrees. She also writes about women of the past whom she particularly admired. This is a very interesting example of someone with medieval valules explaining them.

This site, from the Bibliotheque Nationale de France, contains illuminations from the Jacquerie.

Self-Representation in the Middle Ages—This site was developed at the Central European University in Budapest, Hungary. It contains a wealth of information about period jewelry, heraldry, warfare, weapons, and costuming. The site also contains a glossary, which defines many obscure medieval terms.

Medieval paupers—Paupers made up about 20% of the population of medieval Europe. This essay explains why and how these people were in this situation.

Late Medieval Heralds—In late period English heraldry (which is mainly what SCA heraldry is based on) heralds were organized in a guild-like structure. There were Kings of Arms (masters), heralds (corresponding to journeymen) and pursuivants (corresponding to apprentices). Each of these ranks took an oath upon bestowal of their rank. This site contains the oaths these heralds took before undertaking their duties.

The URL for the Home Page!



Stefan’s Florilegium Archives—This site contains tons of documentation and/or information on just about everything, from feastcratting to stained glass to Celtic, Viking, Slavic, and Middle Eastern cultures. If it’s related to the SCA at all it’s here.

Life of King Edward the Confessor in manuscripts--This site contains a book written about King Edward the Confessor (c. 1002--1066). The illuminated manuscripts were composed c. 1250--1260. The site contains explanations of each folio.

Chests from Medieval Alsace--This site contains photographs of wooden chests which were made in Strasbourg, Alsace, France, in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.

Medieval books--This site is about book production before the printing press was invented in the middle of the fifteenth century. The site includes information on art patronage, materials and techniques of manuscript production, the structure of medieval books, the organization of texts, and much more.

Phiala's String Page--This site contains information on tablet weaving, naalbinding, sprang, braiding, and other textile arts. The site also contains links to other textile arts sites.

Leaning Tower of Pisa Official Site--Welcome to the Leaning Tower of Pisa! Read the Tower's history, 6400 close-up photos, film clips from the belfry, and much more.

"Castle of Perseverence" is the earliest English vernacular full length play, dating from around 1440. This is a modernized version.

This is a page about the Renaissance instrument called "vihuela".

Epact--This *unbelievable* site contains 520 photographs of scientific instruments made in the Middle Ages. They were all considered "mathematical" instruments in that they all used numbers. They were used in astronomy, surveying, gunnery, the making of time pieces, and more. Check this on-line museum out!

Atlantia A&S Page—If you’re looking for anything in the arts and sciences you’ll find it here.

The Bayeaux Tapestry--This site, a sister site of a site about the Battle of Hastings, has some very high-resolution reproductions of one of the masterpieces of medieval needlework. You'll have to turn out the lights to get the best images. The site also contains an explanation for each scene in the tapestry as well as commentary on the missing pieces of the work.

The plays of Roswitha, a talented Benedictine nun from tenth-century Saxony, now Germany.

This site is owned by a member of the SCA who is interested in medieval scientific instruments. The site has a section about his workshops at events, a list of scientific instruments he's made and his references.

"The Battle of Otterburn" is a folk song from the Child collection (#162)about a battle fought between a noble Scottish border family, the Douglases, and an English border family, the Percys, on 19 August 1388. Another song, "Chevy Chase" (Child #162)was also written about this battle, taking its name from the hills the battle was fought in, the Cheviot Mountains. The song reproduced here is most believed to be the older one. "Chevy Chase" was registered in the Stationer's Register in 1624, but that doesn't mean it was written in that year.

This is a German-based site about period stained glass windows. This link briefly describes how stained glass windows were made in the Middle Ages.

This is a part of the manuscript of the founding charter of Charles University, Prague, dating from 1348.

The original lyrics to a trouvere song, "A La Fontanele", written in Old French (a dialect of the langue d'oil) and its translation into modern French.

History of the spinning wheel--This is a cursory overview of the development of the spinning wheel.

Jacinth's Info Mine--This is a "miscellaneous" A&S site. It contains information about on making period soap, paper, candles, rose beads, and baskets, as well as information abouot enameling and hair-braiding.

This site contains a picture of the "Alfred Jewel", made for King Alfred of Wessex in the ninth century.

Music of the Middle Ages and Renaissance--This site contains extensive information about medieval and Renaissance music. This includes research materials, literature, manuscript sources, facsimile editions, and much more.

Medieval Music Glossary--This site, part of the Online Reference Book for Medieval Studies (ORB) site, contains a list of definitions of terms used in medieval music.

The Astrolabe--A general view of astrololabe principles. An astrolabe is an astronomy tool which was invented some 2,000 years ago and was widely used in the Middle Ages. The site includes a picture of an astrolabe made around 1400. It was made by Jean Fusoris (c.1365--1436), a graduate of the University of Paris who was quite an innovative scientist.

Medieval Feasts--This site, owned by an SCA feastcrat, contains the feastcrat's favorite recipes. The original versions and redactions are both included. The site also contains some great links.

Glossary of medieval cooking terminology--This page defines terms used in medieval cooking and brewing.

Clare's Medieval and Renaissance Page--This excellent site contains tons of information on medieval and Renaissance embroidery, medieval Spain, weddings in Renaissance Italy, and period glass beads.

Eric's SCA Dance and Music Page--This site contains files of dance music. The site also has Playford's Country Dance manual linked to it, as well as some useful files.

Marat She’erah bat Shlomo, OL, OP. This Lady’s previous persona was Mistress Ellisif Flakkari.(mka Monica Cellio). She is from Aethelmarc and maintains this excellent site. It contains information about period music and dance, Viking topics, and loads of other cool stuff. Check it out!

This is an article about early medieval dance music by Marat She'erah bat Shlomo.

Les Tres Riches Heures du Duc de Berry—This site contains the classic example of a late period book of hours. This famous Book of Hours dates from the early fifteenth century. This site contains a description and purpose of a medieval book of hours, some information about the artists, and their techniques. There are also descriptive explanations of each illumination reproduced, as well as some information about the owner of the book, Duc Jean de Berry (Duke John of Berry).

The Costumer’s Manifesto: Medieval Costumes—This site contains information on the clothing of men, women, and women, and occupational, special occasion, peasant, military clothing. It also explores clothing from various regions, including Celtic, Viking, Russia, the Middle East, and the Italian Renaissance.

Italian Renaissance Costume Construction--This site contains instructions by two Laurels on how to construct your own pattern for an Italian Renaissance gown. The style they've chosen would have been worn between 1470 and 1540.

The Renaissance Tailor—This site includes an overview of sixteenth and seventeenth century clothing, sources, pattern development, tailoring techniques, and a glossary of tailoring vocabulary.

Du fait de cuisine--This amazing primary source is directly from a cookbook written in 1420 by the master cook to the Duke of Savoy.

Medieval Manuscripts preserved at Oxford University. These things are huge and take awhile to load even with my DSL connection.

The SCA Brew Historic Brewing Page--This site contains many links to sites with information for the SCA vintner. These include essays on medieval drinks, a booklet called "The Drunk Monk's Cookbook", information about beer, ale, wine, a page about the yeast controversy, and a page for those interested in A&S competition.

Alcoholic Drinks of the Middle Ages--This is an educational site about alcoholic beverages in the Middle Ages. It contains information about the history and the manufacturing of beer, ale, wine, mead, whiskey, liqueuers, and cordials. The site includes some recipes, including some for cherry and strawberry wine. Enjoy!

Medieval Cushion from Westphalia (Germany)--This site contains a photograph of an embroidered cushion from fourteenth or fifteenth century Westphalia. The site also contains an analysis of the stitches and colors of the embroidery.

Cynscribe—This excellent calligraphy site contains information on Arabic, Celtic, Hebrew, Chinese, and Japanese calligraphy. It also has information on bookbinding, papermaking, pens, heraldry, and much more.

Images of Medieval Art and Architecture: French cathedrals, abbeys, and other medieval churches. This site contains photographs of these impressive structures. It includes pictures of the town of Mont Saint-Michael which surrounds the cathedral. Photo galleries of other countries on this site are currently under construction.

Basics of Byzantine Dress, circa 1000.

Herbalism Medieval, Magickal, and Modern--This site, maintained by Jadwiga Zajaczkowa (mka Jenne Heise), from the Kingdom of the East, has information on medieval and Renaissance gardens, medieval uses of herbs as medicine, herbal scents, recipes for rosewater, and much more.

The Catalan Atlas—This site contains reproductions of maps constructed by cartographers from Catalonia (northeastern Spain) in the fourteenth century.

Medieval North European Spindles and Whorls—This site is devoted to research into medieval Scandinavian spindles and whorls. The spindles and whorls date to between 800 and 1500 C.E.

Footwear of the Middle Ages—This is a page devoted to the description and methods of construction of medieval footwear. There is an emphasis on Britain and Scandinavia here, although there have been recent updates from Ireland and Germany. This is an online booklet written by Diarmuit Ui Dhuiin, mka Marc Carlson, for the use of SCA members wishing to construct period footwear.

The Costume Page—This is a list of costuming resources from every era all over the globe.

Frankish Costuming—This page is maintained by a member of a living history society called Angelcynn. They strive to be as authentic as possible. This lady was born in Germany and lives in England, so she decided to wear Frankish garb.

Early Occitan Literature—This is an excellent site devoted to the troubadours. The troubadours practiced their art in southern France, a region also known as Occitania, from a name of their vernacular language, Occitan. The first troubadour was one Duke Guilhelm d’Aquitania, to use the Occitan version of his name. We know him as Duke William of Aquitaine (1071—1127), the grandfather of Eleanor of Aquitaine.

Here are more troubadour and trouvere links:

The Musical Influence of Eleanor of Aquitaine--Eleanor of Aquitaine (c. 1122--1204), Duchess of Aquitaine, carried on the trend started by her grandfather by patronizing troubadours and musicians in that tradition in northern France and England. This site tells the story of her life as it relates to the spreading of this great tradition. The site contains many interesting links.

This site contains a general overview of the musician in period:

This is an excellent page on the Cantigas de Santa Maria, music from northern Spain, which was a "bridge" between southern France and al-Andalus, Islamic Spain.

Medieval Music Links—This excellent site contains information on all sorts of medieval music, both sacred and secular.

Aderlass & Seelentrost--I normally avoid advertisement sites like the plague, but this one is special. It has very high-quality pictures of medieval manuscripts which are being shown in an exhibition in a Berlin museum. This includes a picture of a manuscript from the classic story "Nibelungenlied", dating from around 1230. This site was recently featured on a list of choice SCA sites.

Les Capetians—Les Croisades (The Capetians—The Crusades)—This is an excellent site (in French) which contains sixty color slides. These include maps and manuscripts showing period architecture, furniture, clothing, and even the Inquisition at work.

Photos of extant medieval costumes can be found on this page.

Coins of Burgundy and Environs. This site contains pictures of coins from various periods of medieval Burgundy between the fourth and fifteenth centuries. It also includes a map of the territories ruled by the Burgundian leaders in each section.

Medieval and Renaissance Lathes—A lathe is an ancient tool that was used by the Egyptians, Greeks, Romans, and other ancient and medieval peoples. These artisans were called turners or throwers in England, but lathes were also used by pulleymakers, wheelwrights, chairmakers and other artisans.

Daz Buch von Guter Spise—This site contains the entire text of a cooking manual, which was compiled by a proto-notary of the Archbishop of Wurzburg. It was compiled between 1345 and 1354 and contains 101 recipes. The text is in German but is accompanied by an English translation. Some, but not all, of the recipes have been redacted.

Tudor England: Images. This site features portraits of members of this famous English dynasty by the age's finest artists.

The Goliards were poets who got their name from their patron saint, an alleged character named Golias, lord of the vagabonds. Their poems satirized the Church and exalted the joys and virtues of wine, women, and song. The famous Goliard poem "Confessions of Goliath", which is on this site, was written by a German knight known only to history as "the Archpoet". The poem is a mock confession, and was composed around 1160.

Medieval Love Songs—This site contains a list of troubadours, their lyrics, and the stories behind the lyrics.

Research by Duke Sir Cariadoc of the Bow—This site is still under construction; when it’s done, it will contain every bit of information His Grace and His Lady know!

Textiles in Anglo-Saxon and Viking England—This site contains information about textile-making in early period England. It covers the preparation of wool for spinning, the method of spinning wool and linen (the drop spindle), and information about the dyes they used to color their fabrics.

Everyman—This is an on-line version of the best-known morality play. Morality plays were allegorical dramas; they were used to teach the illiterate masses a certain important theme of Christianity.

Nixnet Medieval Art History—This site is another knock-out! It’s amazing! It’s got links to hundreds of art history sites.

Treasures From Europe’s National Libraries—This site contains pictures of many medieval artifacts, including fourteenth-century manuscripts from Russia, a calendar from fifteenth-century Slovakia, and a bookbinding made for Queen Elizabeth I of England in 1582.

Virtue Ventures—This site is breath-taking! It has advice in it on practically everything you need to look and feel period. The site has some particularly impressive research, directions, and pictures of late period Burgundian costuming. Can you say "Burgundian Paradise?" It’s here!

The URL back to Home Page!



These sites are either online versions of medieval literary classics or commentary about them.

Online Medieval and Classical Library—Move over, Internet Medieval Source Book page, this is the biggest Web site I’ve ever seen in my life! It contains the Source Book, the Labyrinth, and many texts of classical and medieval literature, including "The Song of Roland". The Song of Roland is believed to have been written around 1130, between the First and Second Crusades. It contrasts the concepts of chivalry as embodied in Roland and his best friend, Oliviers. This site contains its very own search engine. My one criticism of this site is that it's rather circuituous; this is why I've listed three works from it separately.

This is the direct link to "The Song of Roland". I'm no longer having trouble with this link, so I thought I'd save you a trip on the search engine.

This is the passage from The Song of Roland about his death in the Old French used by the scribe Turold.

Excerpts from the Song of Roland--This site, part of the Medieval Sourcebook, contains excerpts from the Song of Roland about the Battle of Roncevalles. It's very interesting and easy to read.

The High History of the Holy Graal—The spelling of the word I’m used to spelling "Grail" isn’t the only strange thing about this site. Check it out, you won’t get bored!

Literary Primary Sources in the Evolution of the Arthurian Legend. This site contains primary sources on the legend of King Arthur. The first one dates from around 470 in the form of a letter from the bishop of Clermont-Ferrand, France, to a person named Riothamus, believed by some scholars to have been none other than Arthur! The site contains other sources, and ends with an account of a visit to a place associated with Arthur in the sixteenth century.

Niberlungenlied--This is the story of a prince named Siegfried. It's set in the early Middle Ages, but was written later on, during the age of chivalry a la "The Song of Roland". The story contains much early German folklore, and, in fact, has even been included in at least one list of Viking and Norse literature.

Song of the Cid (Cantar del mio Cid). This was written around the middle of the twelfth century. It's the story of the Castilian hero, Rodrigo Diaz de Bivar, commonly called "El Cid". The story takes up when the Cid is exiled from Castile by the King of Leon-Castile, Alfonso VI, in 1081, until shortly before his death in 1099. It is the story of the breakdown of the relationship of lord and vassal due to the shortcomings of the lord, not the vassal. The site contains background information on the poem as well as a translated version of the poem.

Who the heck was El Cid? This is the story of the historical character the poem is based on. There are some differences between the story in the poem and the true story of its main character.

Amleth, Prince of Denmark--This story was written down by Saxo Grammaticus as part of a history of Denmark called "Gesta Danorum" (Latin, "Deeds of the Danes")around 1185, but it's from a much older oral tradition. It's the source of Shakespeare's "Hamlet".

What the heck was the Holy Grail? This essay, from the ECOLE Initiative site, explores the origins of the Holy Grail and finds them in pre-Christian Irish folklore.

This is an analysis of a work called "Legenda Aurea", the Golden Legend. This book, a collection of stories about medieval saints, was written around 1260 by Jacobus de Voragine, an Italian cleric. The word "Legenda" then simply meant "what is read". That's derived from the infinitive "legere", "to read". Only around 1600 did the word "legend" become synonymous with "fable". This book is a typical example of medieval hagiography; it is indeed shot through with fables. Still, it is believed that Jacobus used about 130 sources for this book. Try to beat that on your next research project....uh, no thanks.

The Luminarium. This excellent site is an anthology of medieval, Renaissance, and seventeenth-century English literature. The medieval section includes texts of "Sir Gawain and the Green Knight", the works of Chaucer, and the morality play "Everyman". The Renaissance section includes works by and about Sir Thomas More (1478-1535), Edmund Spencer’s "The Faerie Queen" about Queen Elizabeth I, and more.

Le Morte d’Arthur—Sir Thomas Malory (c. 1405—c. 1471) wrote this classic in prison. He is alleged to have committed robbery, rape, and possibly even murder—although who didn’t in England during the Wars of the Roses? William Caxton printed this work on his printing press around 1486. Malory called this work "Book of King Arthur and of His Noble Knights of the Round Table". For some reason Caxton chose a French name for the work, "Le Morte d’Arthur", ("The Death of Arthur") for the printed version and this title stuck.

The word "Utopia" is a pun in Greek; it means both "nowhere" and "good place". Sir Thomas More (1478--1535) used this word for his classic on the ideal society, which he actually thought to be unattainable. This is a text of this work, written in 1516.

This is an analysis of the contrast between the Sir Thomas More who wrote "Utopia" and the man himself.

Chretien de Troyes (c. 1135—c. 1183) wrote poetry using the themes of the Arthurian cycle, including the search for the Holy Grail. The excerpt of de Troyes’ on this page is called "Lancelot, or the Knight of the Cart", and was published in 1914. It is classified as public domain.

The people at the ECOLE Initiative site aren't the only people curious about the origins of the Holy Grail. The author of this article uses another article from the Catholic Encyclopedia to investigate the development of the Grail legend in the Arthurian Cycle. Their conclusions are quite different from the writer of the article from ECOLE; one could say that this is a more "conventional" approach to the controversy.

Praise of Folly—Erasmus of Rotterdam (c. 1466—1536), one of the greatest humanists of the Renaissance, claimed that he’d written this book in seven days in 1509. It is a deceptively light-hearted satire on life in the early sixteenth century. This particular translation dates from 1699.

Giovanni Boccaccio wrote his famous "Decameron" during the Black Death in 1348. It’s about seven ladies and three men who’ve gotten the heck out of town to escape the deadly epidemic. They spend ten days in a luxurious villa in the country. Every day, each one of them tells a story. These ten stories make up the "Decameron".

Dante Alighiere (1265—1321), who was heavily influenced by the troubadour tradition of southern France and northern Italy, was the author of what many consider to have been the greatest poem of the Middle Ages. This poem, "The Divine Comedy", describes a visit to Hell, Purgatory, and Paradise.

Beowulf—This site, from the Medieval Sourcebook, is an Old English text of this masterpiece.

Celtic origins of Arthurian Literature. This is an essay about the Celtic origins of the characters of medieval Arthurian literature.

This is a translation of Beowulf into Modern English.

Little Blue Light--This is a web site dedicated to the French poet/outlaw Francois Villon (1431--after 1463-he disappeared from history). Villon wrote brilliant poetry maked by rare inspiration and sincerity. Meanwhile he joined a Paris gang called "Brotherhood of the Coquille", frequented taverns, committed at least one crime, and disappeared from Paris while waiting a trip to the gallows.

This page, from the Internet Medieval Source Book, features some works of Francois Villon.

Three ballads written by Francois Villon.

Till Eulenspiegel was here! This is an essay on the continuing appeal of this medieval character.

HROTSVITHAE OPERA (Latin, "works of Hrotvitha") Roswitha von Gandersheim (c. 935—c.1005), whose name has various spellings (one being Hrosvita) and means "mighty voice", was a Benedictine nun who was the first German woman of letters. She composed dramas with religious themes, utilizing an original rhyme scheme and reviving drama as a literary genre to her era. She also unveiled the works of ancient Roman playwrights to her contemporaries. This site contains her works.

"London Lickpenny" is a satirical poem written in Middle English in the fifteenth century. It is about a poor man from Kent who goes to London to see a lawyer only to find that no one will even talk to him without a financial incentive. The text of the poem is on this site.

The Camelot Project—List and description of Knights and Ladies of Arthur’s Realm. The site contains essays about symbols and motifs of the Arthurian Cycle, such as the Holy Grail and Excalibur, place names like Avalon, and much more. (Would someone please tell them that their home page ends with a cryptic ctm? You can "back up" into it from this page for even more goodies.)

The URL to the Home Page!




Medieval Irish poetry—This site includes medieval Irish poems with translations into English and descriptions of medieval Irish poetic forms.

Celtic Heart—Excellent site containing information on Celtic folklore, arts, history, calendars, and culture. This site includes the "Encyclopedia of the Celts", a large, in-depth source of knowledge for all things Celtic.

Medieval Scotland--This excellent site contains, among other things, a biography of St. Columba, who founded Scotland's first monastery on the island of Iona in 563 C.E. The biography was written in 690 C.E. The site contains a side-by-side view of the original Latin text and the English translation as well as photographs of medieval battle standards and the abbey of Iona. The site also contains useful information on medieval Scottish heraldry, a Scottish names index, linguistic resources, and other useful information about medieval Scotland.

The Lothene Experimental Archeology site--Lothene (an earlier spelling of Lothian) is an Edinburgh-based organization based on re-enactment of eleventh-century Scotland, the era of Macbeth, Malcolm Canmore and St. Margaret. The site contains information on early Saxon textile arts and much more.

This is a site about Irish heraldry.

Firth's Celtic Scotland and the Age of the Saints--This site is about the Celtic saints who brought Christianity to northeastern Alba (Alba is a traditional name for Scotland). The site contains a list of links to essays about these saints, a library of churches founded by them, and much more.

Ireland’s history in maps—This excellent site is a sequence of historical maps of Ireland accompanied by historical information for each map. The first map is dated B.C, and tells the mythological beginning stories of the Irish people. There is a map for 100 A.D, 150 A.D, and each century thereafter. The first maps are mainly mythological; the historical accuracy starts to get stronger with the map from 500. This site also includes information about old Irish family names and clans as well as a historical timeline for each century. This site is an excellent resource for Irish name research.

Celtic Monasticism: History and Spirituality—This site is—uh, I’m speechless! It’s amazing! It contains virtual tours of ancient Celtic spiritual places at Glendalough, Ireland, Iona, Scotland (do not miss these tours!). The site also includes information on important Celtic saints like Patrick and Columba.

The URL for the Home Page!


Viking Network Web—This site is bilingual, in Icelandic and English. It contains links pertaining to daily life in Viking lands, a description of a Viking raid, Viking trading activities, and a map of all of the lands where Vikings raided and settled.

This is an interesting part of the Viking Network Web; I dug it up so you won't have to! It's about the language the Vikings spoke and how it spread to influence diverse modern languages--even French!

Heitharviga Saga ("The Story of the Heath-Slayings")Only a part of this saga is left; some of the manuscript has been lost. It was written by an unknown writer in the twelfth century. Of all of the sagas, this one is the most antiquated stylistically. More than any of the other sagas, it displays what story-telling was like during the actual saga era.

History of the Norse Kings (Heimskringla) was written by Snorri Sturlson (c. 1179—1241). This text was translated into English in 1844.

Anglo-Saxon and Viking Works of the Needle: Some Artistic Currents in Cross-Cultural Exchange--This article, written by an SCA member, is about embroidery of the Vikings and Anglo-Saxons. The site also contains links to many other Viking resource sites.

Do you need a Viking tunic? This site tells you how it's done.

Basic Naalbinding--This site explains the basic technique of this Viking method of textile construction.

Njal's Saga--This anonymous Icelandic saga was transcribed in the thirteenth century.

Food and Feud in Saga Iceland—This is an essay on the Icelandic Family Sagas (Islendingasogur) containing stories about the early Norse settlements in Iceland. There are about forty of these stories written in prose.

This page contains many sagas and Eddas in both Old Norse and Modern English.

The story of Balder, the beloved Norse deity known as "Balder the Beautiful".

The Sigurd Runestone--In Snorri Sturlson's "Prose Edda" and other Old Norse works, Sigurd killed a dragon and fended off a plot against his life. In the eleventh century a Swedish woman named Sigrid had a significant inscription related to Sigurd's story carved on a piece of natural stone. This site tells you everything you want to know about the inscription, including its location, its history, the outline of the story it's from, photographs and related links.

Outlandish Nordmen--This is a Viking site by gentles from Outlands. It includes links, SCA merchants, and even Viking jokes.

"The Vikings". This site is a companion site to the NOVA program originally broadcast on 9 May 2000. The site includes a video exploration of a medieval Viking village in Sweden, secrets of Norse ships, instructions on how to write your name in runes, and much more!

Archeological Finds of Ninth and Tenth Century Foodstuffs--This site covers evidence of foodstuffs from Viking Sweden, Norway, Scotland, and Ireland.

Study Guide to Medieval Scandinavia--This site focuses primarily on the Vikings; it's very informative.

Norse Mythology Site—This site contains everything there is to know about Norse mythology. It includes information about the deities of the ancient Norse, their stories, and on-line versions of the Eddas.

Norse Creation story, from Snorri Stuluson’s "Prose Edda".

The URL for the Home Page!



Women’s’ Clothing in Kievan Rus—This is a detailed description of women’s clothing in Russia from the Kievan Rus period (here dated 800—1233; I don’t think any two scholars use the same dates!) through the fifteenth century. It describes the clothing of peasants, town dwellers, and princesses and noblewomen. It includes descriptions of hats, footwear, and jewelry.

Completorium—This early Polish music site includes MIDI files, MP3’s, lists of composers, essays, and sources. One of the songs included is the earliest known composition in Polish, "Bogurodzica" ("Mother of God"), which at one point was a war song of Polish knights.

The Slavic Interest Group, or SIG, provides this site. The Slavic Interest Group is an information network for Central and Eastern European arts and sciences. Peoples and nationalities represented include Russia, Poland, the Czechs, Moravians and Slovaks, Romania, Hungary, Croatia, Lithuania, Latvia, Georgia and Estonia.

Novgorod Chronicle--The Novgorod Chronicle is the most important basic source of written early Russian history. This site contains samples of the Chronicle detailing events from between the eleventh and fifteenth centuries.

The Chronicle of Nestor--This primary source, found in chronicles of the Kiev Rus and originally called "The Tale of Bygone Years", was written down in the fourteenth century. Although tradition holds that it was written by a certain Monk of Nestor, thus its (other) name, it is generally agreed that it is a compilation of the work of several writers.

Medieval Russian Armor. This is a site containing information on medieval Russian armor. The site includes links to info who came into contact with the Russians in the Middle Ages, including the Vikings (Varangians) and Silk Road travelers.

National Symbol of Slovakia--This site contains information about Slovakia's ancient national symbol, the double cross. The site includes much information about medieval Slovakia and its Hungarian rulers.

This monument to the legendary founders of Kiev is not period--it's from 1982--but it's an interesting tribute to Kiev's medieval heritage.

Another interesting picture from Kiev. This is a picture of Zoloti Vorota (Golden Gates), the gates to the ancient fortress of Kiev. For centuries no one destroyed these gates. They were finally destroyed; this restoration dates from 1984.

Estonian Literature: Strangers Creating Culture--This site contains three period documents about Estonia, all written in German. In period, the Estonian language was mainly used for oral tradition, and written tradition, which seems to have been alien to Estonian culture, was written by foreigners in German. German was used because the nation's overlords were Germans. Nevertheless this contains the first documentation of the Estonian language--for example, "maleva" is an Estonian word; it means army.

The Prague Fragments--This is the oldest extent example of Czech Church Glagolithic text, dating from before 1000. The Glagolithic alphabet was introduced into Moravia by the "apostles of the Slavs", Cyril and Methodius.

This is an ancient Czech legend courtesy of Radio Prague.

This is a cursory history of the Magyar people. They have a complex history and settled the nation we now know as Hungary.

This is a picture from the historical exhibition at the National Museum of Hungary in Budapest. It contains a picture of a chalice from the fourteenth century and embroidery from the fifteenth century.

This site lists the nomadic tribes of the steppes, including the Bulgars, the Huns, the Scythians, and many others, and gives the background of each one. The site also contains links to historical towns of Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and other Eastern European nations.

An Introduction to the History of the Khazar state--This site contains text and a map about an interesting and unique culture, that of the Khazars, a Turkic people. This kingdom flourished between the fifth and thirteenth centuries in what is now Russia, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan. They adopted Judaism as their religion, and founded the city of Kiev. The name of this city is Turkic is origin. It's from the word "kui", meaning "riverbank", with the -ev suffix meaning "settlement".

This is a collection of medieval Russian manuscripts. The entire site is in Russian, which I don't read, either. The dates are in Roman numerals.

The Florian Psalter. This page shows this late fourteenth century manuscript, written in Polish, German and Latin. It's from the Polish National Library.

Two medieval Croatian alphabets can be viewed at this site. These alphabets are the Croatian Glagolitic script and the Croatian Cyrillic script. The site contains pictures of these scripts in religious texts from Croatia and its environs.

Medieval Lithuania--This site is maintained by Tomas Baranauskas, a native of Lithuania. The site contains sections on the history, society, and castles of medieval Lithuania.

Czech literature through the Hussite Wars--This site contains an essay about literature in the Czech language (as opposed to Latin), from its origins in the thirteenth century until the Hussite Wars in the early fifteenth century. The Hussite Wars era was an era of intense Czech nationalism during which Jan Hus introduced characters into the Czech alphabet to better adapt the language to the Roman alphabet. If I had these characters on this keyboard I could give you the Old Czech word for "pipe", from which we get our word "pistol".

The settlement of the Magyars--This site, part of a series of the history of Hungary, details the settlement of the nomadic Magyars who came off of the steppes over the Carpathians and eventually into the Danube basin. It expresses a controversial minority viewpoint of the origins of the Magyars.

Translation of an Old Polish poem by Stanislaw Ciolek (1382-1437. The name of the poem is "Praise of Cracow".

Gown of Mary of Hapsburg, made between 1520 and 1530. This authentic piece of late period Hungarian court dress is on exhibit at the Hungarian National Museum in Budapest, Hungary. The site contains a cutting diagram as well as views of the bodice, skirt, and cuffs. It also contains a picture of a very similar Hungarian outfit on a stove tile dated 1490.

Brest through the centuries--This site contains a history of the city of Brest (Bierascie), now in Belarus, from 1019 to 1319. It was part of the Kiev Rus state.

Russian icons index—This site contains reproductions of period Russian icons.

Revenge of Olga, Princess of Kiev—This site tells the story of early Kiev. The first ruler of Kiev was Oleg, who became Prince of Kiev in 862. His son and successor, Igor, was killed by a Slavic tribe called the Derevlians. His widow, Olga, had her revenge.

Defending the Emperor, 1395--This is a primary source! It's an essay written by the Patriarch of Constantinople, of the Eastern Orthodox Church, on the importance of protecting and preserving the institution of the monarchy in the latter stages of the Byzantine Empire, even though by then the Patriarch had become far more powerful than the Emperor!

Timeline of Great Moravia--This is the only timeline of the first Slavic state in Central Europe on the Web!

This is a map of Eastern Slavic and adjacent tribes in the ninth century.!.php

Trade Routes in Ukraine, circa 1300. This is a map of Ukraine and its neighbors with trade routes used in our era shown.

Jan Zizka Memorial--The town of Trocnov, now in the Czech Republic, was the home of Czech military genius Jan Zizka (c. 1370--1424). This site is a very interesting depiction of this town in his day.

Excerpts from the Domostroi—"Domostroi" is the Russian word for "household". This book, written in Moscow between 1550 and 1600, is a household management guide. This site contains excepts on how to teach children the Christian faith, how to instruct servants, and instructs wives to always be subservient to their husbands.

A description of the Mongols written in 1243 from the Internet Medieval Sourcebook.

<>URL for the Home Page!




Tribe Zareefat is a Middle Eastern household based in Meridies. They maintain this web site for Middle Eastern resources.

The Koran--The holy book of the Islamic faith is here online.

This is a site about the life and poetry of the great Persian-born poet Rumi, a noted Sufi mystic.

Dar Anahita--This is a wonderful Middle Eastern site, maintained by an SCA member. The site includes information on period Middle Eastern clothing, food, and other aspects of life of interest to the re-enactor.

Islamic Art--This site contains photographs of works of art, including glasswork, manuscripts, metalwork, and much more, from Islamic nations dating from the faith's beginnings in the seventh century to our times. The site contains explanatory text for each object shown.

Islamic History in Arabia and the Middle East--Do not pass go, do not collect $200--go to this site! It's amazing! It contains much very interesting information about life in the Islamic world in the Middle Ages.

This is an academic essay about the invasion of a branch of the Turks into what is now Turkey, one of the most pivotal events in the history of civilization.

The Turkic Peoples--This site contains an essay on the Turkic peoples, who included the Ottoman Turks and the powerful Seljuk Turks who wielded enormous power in the medieval Middle East.

This page contains a listing of traditional Turkish folk instruments.

The Seljuk Turks--This site contains an informative essay about this important branch of the Turkish people.

This is a site for Topkapi Palace, for four hundred years the home of the Sultans of the Ottoman Empire in Istanbul.

This site contains three articles written by three different modern Turkish historians. The articles are about caravanserais, a network of inns founded in Turkey and other Islamic lands as a public service.

This is the UNESCO Web site on caravanserais.

This is a medieval Turkish story about a girl and her two evil sisters.

This site contains an informative and well-researched essay about hospitals and health care in general in medieval Islamic culture.

Islamic Science--This page, from a popular alchemy site, contains links to various resources for Islamic science.

This is a work by one of medieval Islam's most brilliant scholars, Ibn Sina, known as Avicenna in the West. It's called "On Medicine".

Art of Arabic Calligraphy—This site contains four articles on the history of alphabets in the Middle East and the development of Arabic calligraphy.

Asim’s Middle Eastern Dance Link Site—This site has links to both mundane and SCA Middle Eastern dance and music sites.

Coffee and Coffeehouses in the Medieval Middle East—This online booklet contains a history of coffee. It starts with its obscure origins in Yemen and follows the growth of its popularity in the Islamic world, along with accounts of disputes amongst Moslems as to the morality of its consumption.

Flowers of Silk and Gold: Four Centuries of Ottoman Embroidery—This site features pictures of traditional Ottoman Turkish fabrics embroidered with ancient techniques and styles.

Mistress Zaynab’s excellent site has instructions on how to make your own Turkish garb, ladies, and headdresses, too! The site contains pictures of her Laureling ceremony.

This site contains an anonymous Cookbook from thirteenth-century Andalusia.

Legacy of Genghis Khan: Courtly Art and Culture in Western Asia, 1256--1353, Los Angeles County Museum of Art. This site contains information on the Mongols in China, Iran, the Mongols and Islam, and much more. This is a flash site.

Anna Commena (1083--after 1148) was a Byzantine princess who wrote this account of her family's struggles with the Turks and the Crusaders. These struggles led to the transformation of a large part of the Byzantine Empire into the Ottoman Empire.

The Travels of Ibn Battuta--Ibn Battuta, a native of Tangiers, left his birthplace in the month of Rajab in 725 (1325 C.E. by the Julian Calendar reckoning) on his way to Mecca. He went to Alexandria, sailed up the Nile, visited Mecca, not to mention Syria, Persia, Constantinople and possibly half the other nations on the planet during the twenty-nine years of his travels.

Palace attire and garments: the costumes of the Sultans. This site contains pictures of the actual garb worn by sultans, dating back to the fifteenth century.

This site contains a list of books about the medieval Middle East. The owner is a Middle Eastern persona in the SCA, and this is her personal library.

Persian clothing—This site is a work in progress, but it already contains some very impressive research and other useful information about Persian clothing.

URL for the Home Page!




King Rene’s Tournament Book—This site contains a Modern English translation of a book written around 1460 by Rene, a French claimant to the thrones of Jerusalem and Sicily.

De Re Militari--The ultimate site for Medieval Military History. This *amazing* site provides resources for everything you ever wanted to know about military matters in the Middle Ages. Check it out!

Sword Tours of the Middle Ages--Take a virtual tour of a medieval sword museum! This site contains many pictures of swords dating from between 400 C.E. and 1450 along with detailed descriptions of each part of the swords.

This is an interesting article about the longbow.

This is a terrific longbow site. The site includes information about longbows, crossbows, even a joke page about the folk etymology of an undisclosed weapon......go see!

The Association for Renaissance Martial Arts maintains this site. The site contains many period fencing texts. These include the oldest sword and buckler manual, dating from circa 1300, as well as Italian and Scandinavian texts.

This site contains photographs of fifteenth-century gunpowder artillery which are in museums.

This page contains a history of medieval weapons. It's part of the Castles of Britain site.

Homepage for Eric Brown, AKA Caladin Ironhearth, Esq. This is the site of an SCA fighter. It contains instructions on how to make a sword, a shield, and a simple shield basket. It also contains a knights' essay of melee tactics, armor making links, and other stuff currently under construction.

Secrets of the Norman Conquest--This site uses primary documentation to prove a hypothesis that William and his army landed at Hastings, not Pevensey as we were all taught in school. Judge for yourself....

This is a glossary of medieval chivalric and heraldric terminology. It includes descriptions of many medieval weapons and pieces of armor.

Jan Zizka (c. 1370-1424) was a brilliant, innovative military strategist from southern Bohemia, now the Czech Republic. This article describes his career and his military strategies. Zizka made ample use of handguns in warfare. The word "pistol", originally from the Czech word for "pipe", came into general use during his career.

Chronique: The Knighthood, Chivalry and Tournaments Resource Library. This is the ultimate SCA fighter's resource site. It contains information about both period and modern tourneys. The site contains some information about a medieval knightly order, the Order of the Black Swan (French, 1350), along with the Order's Ordinances, in French. A translation is in the works. The site is still under construction, due to the owner's change of ISP, but the finished product will be useful to every knight, squire, and anyone else who picks up a stick on the weekend.

This is an account of the Battle of Grunwald, fought on 15 July 1410 between the Teutonic Knights along with their allies against the armies of Poland and Lithuania.

This is an essay about the development of the chivalric ethic among medieval warriors.

Arador Armour Library--This site contains tons of information about medieval armor. It includes detailed directions on making your own armor, the use of metal and leather in armor-making, photos of period armor in European collections, a discussion list, and more.

This is a short history of the longbow.

Medieval Archery--This site contains much information about medieval archery. The site includes information on the history of archery, medieval archery in general, crossbow, longbow, archery in Islamic lands, a glossary of archery terms, and much more.

Dylan’s Fencing Page—This site contains several period texts on rapier combat. It also contains links to other SCA fencing sites.

This page has a short article about one of the most pivotal battles in the Middle Ages, the Battle of Tours, fought between Christians and Moslems in 732 C.E.

Dan Danulf's Academy of Defense: Teaching the Noble Science of Elizabethan Fencing in the SCA--This site includes historical research on fencing, safety and marshalling, and topics of general interest to the SCA fencer.

The Perfect Armor: Instructions by Duke Sir Cariadoc of the Bow from his Miscellany on making hardened leather armor using beeswax for the hardening of the leather. His Grace has since changed his mind about the periodicity of this method of leather-hardening and now uses water for this purpose. Consequently there are instructions on how to use water to harden leather and make armor out of it.

The Lithuanian army in the Middle Ages. This site contains an excellent military history of Lithuania during the period 1132 and 1435. It includes a description of the country’s army and lists its principal enemies for this period.

The URL to the Home Page!


Academy of St. Gabriel Library—This site contains information and advice on name and persona research.

College of Arms official site--This is the official web site of the English College of Arms, who use the system of arms and heraldry that the SCA bases its practice of heraldry on. The site includes a history of the College, information about the officers of the College, who are called heralds, and everything there is to know about arms, past and present.

Medieval Name Archives—This site contains tons of information about names from many languages and nationalities used by SCAdians. Perhaps you can get that tricky Czech name by Laurel! Oh, yes, if you do please let me know how you did it as my own persona is Czech and I’ve got a French name!

Medieval Pavilion Resources--Do you need a tent or a pavilion for your events? Chances are that you'll need one at least once! This site is still under construction, but it already includes much useful information about tents and pavilions. The site is maintained by Baroness Mira Silverlork, O.L.

Chirurgeon’s Point—Links, forms, articles and other items for the SCA chirurgeon.

Meridian Waterbearers' Home Page.This site contains articles and information concerning waterbearing in Meridies.

This site contains instructions for making medieval furniture, including a bed.

Would you like to know how the Rialto got its name? OK, it was a bridge in medieval Venice—but how did that bridge get its name? Find out here!

URL to the Home Page!



This material may be used for any educational purpose. I only ask that you mention my name if you quote this reference. Happy surfing!