Compiled by THL Isabelle de Foix


General Research Sites

Daily Life Sites

Arts and Sciences Sites

Literary Sites

Celtic Studies Sites

Viking and Norse Studies Sites

Slavic and Eastern European Studies Sites

Middle Eastern Studies Sites

Warriors' Sites

Life in the SCA Sites


University professors, students, former students and general medieval history nuts run these sites. Their content reflects the areas in which these people did their research. The subject matter runs the gamut of the Middle Ages themselves. Some of these sites are strictly political history but plenty of them contain interesting social history as well. Please don't think these sites are only for scholars, because they're not! Do not miss the visually stunning page about the Battle of Hastings! It's an amazing site for warrior, scholar, and any other interested party alike.

Online Reference Book for Medieval Studies—This is an excellent resource page for the medieval researcher. There are many primary sources and some excellent secondary sources as well.

Internet Medieval Sourcebook--This is an excellent research site, containing many primary sources. It's huge!

Labyrinth: This is another excellent overall Medieval Studies site from Georgetown University.

It's Netserf! The Ultimate Connection for Medieval Resources! The site includes archeology, architecture, art, people, music, history, women, law, literature...if it's medieval, it's here! Want some news? Check out headlines like "DNA used in attempt to solve Christian mystery", "Archologists unearth unique objects in Veliky Novgorod", and much more!

The ECOLE Initiative--This huge site, the Encyclopedia of Early Church History on the WWW, contains articles, primary sources, mailing lists, and many other medieval resources.

Gutenberg Digital—This page was originally issued as a CD-ROM by the Goettingen State and University Library for private study only. It contains the text of the Goettingen Bible, published by Gutenberg in 1454. It also contains a biographical sketch of Johannes Gutenberg, a selection of well-known printed Bible verses compared to the original Greek and Hebrew texts, a description of the technology of Gutenberg’s printing press, and much more. If you're curious about the spelling difference, I used to have this write-up with the "Gottingen" spelling and got an e-mail from the University itself informing me that I'd misspelled the name in translation. This is a must-see—it’s like going to a museum!

The Great Hall of Odin's Castle of Dreams and Legends--This site is a *fantastic* source of all things medieval.

The history of Salic Law—This is the story of the impact of Salic Law on French politics. It was invoked several times to prevent claimants to the French throne from actually sitting on it because it forbade inheritance through a female ancestor.

The Salic Law—This is another, earlier text of Salic law; it dates from around 500 C.E.

Battle of Hastings, 1066. This site contains maps and commentary about the history of England leading up to this pivotal battle as well as information about the battle. It has the most incredible imagery I've ever seen on the Internet, period. Check it out!

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle—This document was originally compiled on the orders of King Alfred the Great of Wessex around 890. Anonymous writers added it to until the middle of the twelfth century. This translation dates from 1823.

Medieval Sourcebook: Grants of privileges to the Hanse of Cologne, 1157-1194.

The Domesday Book Online--Well, actually, not quite, even though that's the name of this site. The site contains much information from the Domesday Book, including place names and the names of landowners in England at the time of its compilation (1085-1087).

Maps of medieval France--This site is a directory containing French maps all throughout the Middle Ages.

The Mongols in World History--This is an excellent site about Mongolian culture and history. It contains much information on the often uncredited Mongolian contributions to various aspects of cultural life.

This site contains the genealogy of French royalty from the House of Capet (ascended throne 987 C.E.) to the House of Bourbon, overthrown in 1848.

Charlemagne's Empire at his death, 814 C.E. Charlemagne's Empire at his death reached from Brittany and the Spanish marches to the Croats, Czechs and other Slavs of Central and Eastern Europe. It included the entire panorama of the Continental Germanic peoples.

Ragnar's Bookmarks--This is an excellent all-around medieval history site.

Gregory of Tours, "History of the Franks". Gregory of Tours (c. 539--594 C.E.)was a writer of early France. This book is one of the most important texts of history from the early Middle Ages. It tells the story of the development of the Christian state of France complete with stories of miracles and such. This is an expression of the temper of the times.

The history of the tournament in our period. It's fascinating for fighter and non-fighter alike.

Hus, Luther, Gutenberg: Masters of History. This is an essay about the difference Gutenberg's printing press made between the influence of Czech religious reformist polemicist Jan Hus (c. 1370--1415) and German church reformer Martin Luther (1483--1546).

This site is about medieval London.

This site is about the greatest of medieval scholars, St. Thomas Aquinas, who lived between 1225--1274.

Erasmus of Rotterdam (c. 1466-1536) is considered the greatest of the Renaissance humanists. He remains a controversial yet attractive personage. This site is all about him.

The Study of Hagiography--An authoritative site about all aspects of the study of saints.

This is a site about early medieval Austria.

Medieval saints. Saints were a very important part of medieval life. This site, from the Medieval Sourcebook, has much valuable information on these important people.

Medieval Map Links--This site contains links to maps of medieval Europe at various crucial points in time.

This site contains a timeline of medieval Europe.

This site is a huge directory of international medieval history.

Medieval Italy database. This site is mostly in Italian.

Augustine of Hippo: His Life and Works. This site is all about the fascinating historical figure Augustine, called St. Augustine by Roman Catholics. The site dates from 1994 and includes texts and translations of Augustine's works, commentaries, research materials, essays, images of Augustine, and much more.

Decree of Ferdinand and Isabella, from 1492, ordering all Jews to either convert to Christianity or leave Spain. The site includes the full text of the decree and an image of the original Edict signed by Ferdinand and Isabella.

Account of the expulsion of the Jews from Spain by Ferdinand and Isabella, originally written in Hebrew by an Italian Jew.

Albertus Magnus--This is a page about the brilliant scholar and teacher who taught Thomas Aquinas.

Meet your not-so-friendly local Inquisitor! Bernard Gui (served 1307--1323) was the Inquisitor in Umberto Eco's "Name of the Rose". This is a description of his Inquisitorial procedures.

A brief history of the Church in the Middle Ages.

Peter Abelard (1079-1142)was a famous philosopher and teacher, better known in these escapist times as the lover of Heloise. This site is all about this fascinating medieval figure, one of the founders of the University of Paris, now the Sorbonne.

Medieval Kings of England--This is a timeline of the Kings of medieval England from William the Conquerer to Henry VIII, who died in 1547.

This is a more detailed timeline of the Kings of England.

Medieval languages--This site contains a whole slew of links to sites about just about every language spoken in Europe in our period.

Languages spoken in medieval England--There were several languages spoken in England during the Middle Ages. This site is all about them.

Les Seigneurs de Bohon (The Noblemen of Bohun). This is a list of Norman French aristocrats of England. They played a crucial role in the foundation of Anglo-Norman England.

This is a site about the Battle of Agincourt.

Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531) was the first Protestant Reformer in Switzerland. This site is about him.

This site, in French, is all about French kings in the Middle Ages.

Medieval Synagogues Found in Europe--This site contains a list of Jewish synagogues recently discovered that were built in the Middle Ages, along with brief descriptions.

The origins of Switzerland--In 1291, the people of three Alpine regions, known as Uri, Unterwalden, and Schwyz, signed a treaty called "The Eternal Bond of Brothers" to protect each other against foreigners with designs on submitting them to their rule. These included the powerful Austrian house of Habsburg, who unsuccessfully tried to conquer these people. The people chose the name of one of these districts, Schwyz, as the name for their country--Switzerland to us. Four manuscripts of this treaty, all written in Latin by an anonymous scribe on that fateful day, 1 August, 1291, are still extent. One of these manuscripts is in a museum in Bern. It's also on-line here in English translation.

Austria's history as the territory of its late medieval ruling house, the Habsburgs.

The Early History of the City of Cologne.

"Parens scientiarum" (Latin, "mother of sciences") was a papal decree recognizing the authority of the teaching guild in Paris, and its independence from the bishop of Paris. Issued in 1231, this was a historic document in the development of the guild into the University of Paris. The name "University" was from the Latin "universitas" meaning "guild".

Medieval Castles in France--This site includes pictures of medieval French cities, abbeys, Loire Valley castles, and much more.

Medieval Amsterdam--This page is about the origins of this great Dutch city. These origins involved the building of the first of Holland's famous dikes.

Capitulary of Charlemagne—Issued in 802 C.E, this document defined the legal structure of Charlemagne’s Empire. This is a very good example of early period Frankish law.

Virtual Worlds in Archeology Initiative--This is part of an effort by archeologists to actually recreate buried medieval towns using archeological technology. This site covers the efforts being made to this effect in Finland's only significant medieval town, Turku.

How did the Crusades start? This site contains an essay with a theory that they all started because of the ambition of one Byzantine Emperor.

Medieval Universities and Alchemy--This site contains an essay on the uneasy relationship between alchemy and medieval universities.

Foundation of the University of Heidelberg, 1386--This page, from the Avalon Project site, is a reproduction of the document that was drafted when this famous German university was founded. It includes the intention, the structure and the rules of the university.

The Division of the Carolingian Empire, 817 C.E. This ordinance, put out by one of Charlemagne’s sons, Louis the Pious, followed Frankish custom in leaving property to all male offspring. This fragmented the Empire.

By the early tenth century monasteries which were owned by lay people--and that was all of them at the time--had all sorts of problems because of these lay owners. Cluny Abbey was the first Benedictine Abbey that was not owned by a lay person. It was founded specifically to address the problem caused by the proprietary monastic trend. This is the founding charter of this illustrious medieval institution.

Sir Thomas More (1478-1535). This is a site about the "Man for All Seasons".

Golden Bull of Charles IV, 1356. Charles of Luxembourg, King of Bohemia, became Holy Roman Emperor in 1350. This is the text of his edict, or "bull", that defined the succession of the Holy Roman Emperors.

Medieval Christianity and Women. This site contains information about famous medieval women in the religious sphere who made a difference in the societies in which they lived.

Saxo Grammaticus ("Saxo the Learned") was a Danish historian who lived between 1150 and 1220. He wrote a history of the Danish people in Latin called "Gesta Danorum" ("Deeds of the Danes"). An English translation is reproduced on this site. Of course you've got to take it all with a grain of salt; it's largely based on Scandinavian folklore which had been an oral tradition. This book, incidentally, contains the earliest written story of Hamlet. In fact, that part of the story is also reproduced below in the Literary category. On with the show.....

Medieval maps. This site contains pictures of many maps constructed in the Middle Ages.

The Electric Grosseteste--This site, which is still under construction, is dedicated to the study of the life and works of one of England's great medieval scholars and theologians, Robert Grosseteste (c. 1170--1253). Born in humble circumstances in Stowe, Suffolk, Grosseteste acquired an excellent education and produced some theological and philosophical masterpieces. A few of these are available for reading and downloading from this site. If the information isn't there yet, plans are in the works to have it on this site in the future. Stay tuned!

ENGLISC listserver page. This is the page for a listserver that was organized for the study of Old English. The site also contains links to Old English texts, projects, a glossary, and more.

Medieval Coins--This site contains photographs and explanations of medieval French coins. These include royal coins, feudal coins, ecclesiastical coins, and Crusader Land coins.

Normans in South Wales, 1070—1117. This online book discusses the land, people, economy, and social and political structure of Wales during this period. The book comments on the impact of the Norman Conquest on Wales.

Early Medieval Resources for Britain, Ireland, the Franks, also includes a hagiography, or lives of saints.

Roger Bacon (1214—1292) was a scientist who was the precursor of modern experimental science. Experimental science was a sharp departure from the "authority-quotation" proof method (use of an "authority" like Aristotle or Galen to prove a proposition) which hindered science in the Middle Ages and Renaissance. This site contains his "Tract of the Tincture and Oil of Antimony", which contains his philosophy of alchemy, as well as treatments for leprosy, stroke, epilepsy, and gout.

Portraits of twelve great medieval Islamic scientists, along with the fields they contributed to. This site is by Professor Jameed Abdel-reheem Ead of the Department of Chemistry at the University of Cairo.

Rome Reborn: Renaissance humanists. The word "humanist" is used for Renaissance scholars because they were primarily interested in the study of human beings as individuals. Earlier scholars had approached the concept of humanity in a much more collective and community-oriented context. The humanists attempted to use the classics of the past, the great literature of ancient Greece and Rome, in the hopes of making the world a better place in which to live. Their primary goal was the dignifying of the human being. This site contains concise information about the leading humanists of the Renaissance.

This site contains a great picture of the Cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris, along with some history of this great church.

The document establishing the Duchy of Austria, issued by Emperor Frederick, 17 September 1156.

This site is a chronology of the Crusades. This is a cursory dateline of the Crusades for the novice researcher. The site contains useful links and references for more in-depth research.

Islamic and Christian Spain in the early Middle Ages—This online book deals with life in early medieval Spain. The topics of the book include society and the economy, agriculture, settlements, urbanization and commerce, ethnic relations, and much more.

The Hanseatic League was a mercantile organization comprised of groups of merchants in Northern European cities which promoted their business interests. It was founded in the middle of the thirteenth century and included the cities of northern Europe. This site contains an essay on the history of the League.

This site contains a brief biographical sketch of Andreas Vesalius (1514—1564), the Flemish-born scientist who is today known as the "father of anatomy".

Medieval Demographics Made Easy—This site describes an imaginary medieval landscape drawing on research done on England, Germany, France and Italy between the twelfth and the fourteenth centuries.

Virtual History of Venice—This site contains a time line of the history of this fascinating city. It starts with its origins as a marsh inhabited by Italians fleeing Attila the Hun’s armies ((452) and continues throughout our time period.

The URL for Home Page!



This is another informative site about medieval universities.

Medieval students--This site contains four period reproductions of medieval students, including one of a party scene.

Peter Abelard (1079--1142): "History of My Calamities". This is Peter Abelard's autobiography, although it's written in the form of a letter. It was the first autobiography to be composed in the Middle Ages since Augustine's fifth-century "Confessions". It shows the growing social acceptability of belief in the individual, to reach its culmination in the Renaissance.

Information on Cluny Abbey. This site contains information on Cluny Abbey, one of the greatest of medieval monastic institutions.

Medieval Sourcebook: Annals of Xanten, 845--853. This text, from what is now the Netherlands, illustrates the hardships of life at what is commonly considered the low point of Western European civilization.

Anthology of texts about the Cult of Saints. This is a directory of links to texts written by early Church saints, including a letter of St. Ambrose of Milan to his sister.

Medieval servants--This is a site with information on servants in a medieval household.

The medieval household--This is a detailed look at how a large medieval household was run.

This is a site about Joan of Arc. Categories include a biography, timeline, letters, and much more.

This is another intesting site about Joan of Arc.

Dominion and Domination of the Gentle Sex: The Lives of Medieval Women. This site contains all sorts of fascinating information about the lives of women in medieval Europe.

This site is about hospitals in medieval Bath, England.

This site is all about medieval feasts.

Hunting in the Middle Ages. This is an essay on medieval nobility pursuing a hobby. Does that sound familiar?

Ralph Glaber, "Miracles de Saint-Benoit", manners and life in late tenth and early eleventh century France.

This is an excellent site about medieval science.

Chaiya's Sephardic World--In the Middle Ages, a "Sephardic" Jew was a Jew from the Iberian lands. This site reproduces the world of the Jews of medieval Spain, and contains much advice on recreating it in the SCA.

Economic and Social Value of Jewelry in the Middle Ages. The site also contains information about medieval jewelry itself.

A Medieval Love Story--This site contains the story of Abelard and Heloise, one of the great love stories of the Middle Ages.

Christine de Pizan--This site is about Christine de Pizan (c. 1365-1430), Europe's first professional female writer. She is known as a highly principled woman who fought for awareness of female talents and capabilities.

Medieval Children in Service--This is a site about medieval children who entered service in someone else's household.

Life in a Medieval Castle--This site includes sections on the hall, the kitchen, accommodations, water and the chapel in a medieval castle.

Subservience of Women in Medieval Thought. This page contains passages from medieval scholars concerning the low status of women in ordinary medieval life.

The Children's Crusade--Did this tragic event actually occur? This site contains an essay arguing that this Crusade never took place.

Richer of Rheims: A Journey to Chartres. This is the story of a monk's journey from Rheims to Chartres to attend school. It illustrates the difficulty of travel in tenth-century France.

Florentine Chronicle of the Black Death—This site contains a description of life during the Black Death in Florence in 1348. The site also includes an estimate of the number of deaths for the period covered as well as ordinances passed by officials as a result of the catastrophe.

Glossary of manorial terms--This page contains definitions of everything found on a medieval noble's estate.

Catharist Initiation Rite--This page contains the text of a ritual used to initiate new members of the Catharist faith. This faith became so popular in southern France that a crusade was held to stamp it out.

Timeline of the Hundred Years' War--This site contains a timeline of both political events and developments in everyday life (i.e, the first mention of the sport of tennis).

L'Abbaye de Fontenay, founded in 1118, is one of the oldest Cistercian monasteries in the world. It is situated in a beautiful valley in Burgundy, France. This is its Web site. The site includes a virtual tour of the monastery, including its dormitory, bakery, dormitory, chapel, forge, and heating room. Fontenay was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1981.

Table Manners in the Thirteenth Century--This quote from "The Romance of the Rose", written by Jean de Meung, gives instructions on table manners in thirteenth century France. Read what de Meung says about the hostess--none too flattering. This is what de Meung thought of women in general.

Life in the Keep and Castle--This page gives an interesting glimpse into life in a medieval castle for all of its inhabitants.

Medieval Society and Culture--This site contains graphic information about everyday life in the Middle Ages. It's very informative and fun to read.

This site contains extensive information about life in Paris during the reign of Philippe Auguste (reigned 1180--1223).

Life of the Students at the University of Paris--This thirteenth-century text alleges that most students in Paris led immoral lives and were not interested in study. Obviously many Parisians felt this way; they had frequent disputes with the students. The students, for their part, claimed that the Parisians were rip-off landlords.

In this page, Agobard of Lyons, a Carolingian scholar, denounces contemporary superstitions about the weather.

In this account a wife files suit to get her husband back.

The family tree of the French monarchy, from the Capetians (mounted throne in 987 C.E.) to the abolition of the monarchy.

This page contains a cursory essay on the history of chess, with an emphasis on how each piece represents people in medieval society.

Mythical Plants of the Middle Ages—This site contains a collection of essays about plants that never existed, but were widely believed to exist in the Middle Ages.

Medieval stone, art, architecture--This site contains links to fascinating links on many aspects of medieval life.

This is an essay about tennis in the Middle Ages.

This is a short explanation of the medieval precursor to our modern games of football and soccer. It was called "gameball".

Mapping Margery Kempe--This site is about the famous, or infamous, saint or eccentric (or both) woman from Bishop's Lynn, England, who infuriated, confused, excited and mystified people of her era--a medieval VIP, if you will, especially in her own mind.

Elmet's Mediaeval Era--This is a site that's currently under construction. The site already contains interesting information on place names in England, battles, kings, and a list of courses at a medieval feast. When this site is completed it'll be one of the best medieval sites I've ever seen.

St. Francis of Assisi’s "Sermon to the Birds". St. Francis of Assisi (c. 1182—1226) was one of the most popular saints of the Middle Ages. Many stories were told about him, many of them reflecting his love of nature. These included a charming story that he once preached a sermon to his feathered friends. The story and the alleged sermon are on this site.

Regia Anglorium was a Latin term used by writers of early period England when referring to their native land. It means "Kingdoms of the English" and is the name of a modern medieval re-enactment society. Members of Regia Anglorium value authenticity above all else and reconstruct an early period England straight from the lives of the Angles. Saxons, Jutes, Vikings, and other peoples who coalesced into the English nation. Visit a fictional pre-Conquest manor, Drengham, on this site; you might also want to check out a fictional estate, Wichamstow. Both of these are brilliant visual displays of life in a well-defined time and place. This is an early period persona’s virtual paradise.

The Art of Courtly Love. Andreas Cappelanus wrote these rules of courtly love at the court of Marie de Champagne, the daughter of Eleanor of Aquitaine between 1174 and 1186.

This site contains 180 pictures of royalty and nobility feasting, cooks, kitchens, cooking pans, servers, workers on lunch break, and much more. All of these images are completely period.

The New Forest is a hunting preserve in Hampshire, England. It was first designated as an official "forest" by William the Conqueror in 1079. In the Middle Ages the word "forest" did not mean "woods" as it does today; rather, it was a preserves area of land on which the animals hunted by the royal family were not disturbed by outsiders. These regulations were known as the "forest law" and were a great burden on the local peasantry, who often barely lived at the subsistence level. The Merovingian kings of France established the first forests in the sixth century and William brought the concept to England. This site contains the history, pictures, and other information about the New Forest, which is still maintained by the British Crown today.

Plague and Public Health in Renaissance Italy—This site contains primary accounts of the Black Death in Italy.

This site contains a detailed essay on the history of heraldry in medieval England.

Geoffrey Chaucer page—This page contains information about Geoffrey Chaucer (c. 1340—1400). It has links to pages about meals and manners, including the feasts of the nobility. There is an expense account for an embassy from Aragon who spent time in England in 1415. There are also essays about court life, tournaments, and women.

This excerpt from the French poem "La Roman de la Rose" is taken from the Chaucer Page. It is an example of misogyny from this popular poem, written in the thirteenth century by two poets, that so vexed Christine de Pizan. It was also a widely held view of women held by male writers in the Middle Ages.

Excerpt from Christine de Pizan's "City of Ladies". In this reproduction, Christine discussed men who did not think women should be educated and why she disagrees. She also writes about women of the past whom she particularly admired. This is a very interesting example of someone with medieval values explaining them.

Self-Representation in the Middle Ages—This site was developed at the Central European University in Budapest, Hungary. It contains a wealth of information about period jewelry, heraldry, warfare, weapons, and costuming. The site also contains a glossary, which defines many obscure medieval terms.

Late Medieval Heralds—In late period English heraldry (which is mainly what SCA heraldry is based on) heralds were organized in a guild-like structure. There were Kings of Arms (masters), heralds (corresponding to journeymen) and pursuivants (corresponding to apprentices). Each of these ranks took an oath upon bestowal of their rank. This site contains the oaths these heralds took before undertaking their duties.

The URL for the Home Page!



Stefan’s Florilegium Archives—This site contains tons of documentation and/or information on just about everything, from feastcratting to stained glass to Celtic, Viking, Slavic, and Middle Eastern cultures. If it’s related to the SCA at all it’s here.

Life of King Edward the Confessor in manuscripts--This site contains a book written about King Edward the Confessor (c. 1002--1066). The illuminated manuscripts were composed c. 1250--1260. The site contains explanations of each folio.

Chests from Medieval Alsace--This site contains photographs of wooden chests which were made in Strasbourg, Alsace, France, in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.

Medieval books--This site is about book production before the printing press was invented in the middle of the fifteenth century. The site includes information on art patronage, materials and techniques of manuscript production, the structure of medieval books, the organization of texts, and much more.

Phiala's String Page--This site contains information on tablet weaving, naalbinding, sprang, braiding, and other textile arts. The site also contains links to other textile arts sites.

Leaning Tower of Pisa Official Site--Welcome to the Leaning Tower of Pisa! Read the Tower's history, 6400 close-up photos, film clips from the belfry, and much more.

"Castle of Perseverence" is the earliest English vernacular full length play, dating from around 1440. This is a modernized version.

Introduction of the silk industry into Europe, primary source.

Atlantia A&S Page—If you’re looking for anything in the arts and sciences you’ll find it here.

Index of Cartographic Images. This is a site of late medieval maps.

Medieval Food and Drink--This site contains a list of links to sites about period food and drink, including recipes.

This site contains a directory of links to late medieval manuscripts in a collection in Copenhagen.

Art of the Middle Ages--This is part 7 of Art History Resources on the web.

Bodleian Library: Western manuscripts through 1500.

West Kingdom's Cookerie Guild Site--This site contains links on contributed recipes, researching recipes, information about the Kingdom's cooking competitions, the guild charter, and even a link to a mailing list.

A list of books on medieval garb, compiled by a Laurel.

The Bayeaux Tapestry--This site, a sister site of a site about the Battle of Hastings, has some very high-resolution reproductions of one of the masterpieces of medieval needlework. You'll have to turn out the lights to get the best images. The site also contains an explanation for each scene in the tapestry as well as commentary on the missing pieces of the work.

Coins of Medieval France--This site contains a guided tour of medieval coins, as well as sections on royal coins, crusader coins, feudal coins, ecclesiastical coins, and miscellenous coins.

Medieval Coins Study Group--Links galore to research and share information about medieval coins!

Medieval Mediterranean Coins--This site contains links to timelines, pictures and other information about coins from around the Mediterranean area, including Crusader Jerusalem, Armenia, and other nations.

The plays of Roswitha, a talented Benedictine nun from tenth-century Saxony, now Germany.

This site is owned by a member of the SCA who is interested in medieval scientific instruments. The site has a section about his workshops at events, a list of scientific instruments he's made and his references.

"The Battle of Otterburn" is a folk song from the Child collection (#162)about a battle fought between a noble Scottish border family, the Douglases, and an English border family, the Percys, on 19 August 1388. Another song, "Chevy Chase" (Child #162)was also written about this battle, taking its name from the hills the battle was fought in, the Cheviot Mountains. The song reproduced here is most believed to be the older one. "Chevy Chase" was registered in the Stationer's Register in 1624, but that doesn't mean it was written in that year.

This is a German-based site about period stained glass windows. This link briefly describes how stained glass windows were made in the Middle Ages.

The original lyrics to a trouvere song, "A La Fontanele", written in Old French (a dialect of the langue d'oil) and its translation into modern French.

History of the spinning wheel--This is a cursory overview of the development of the spinning wheel.

Jacinth's Info Mine--This is a "miscellaneous" A&S site. It contains information about on making period soap, paper, candles, rose beads, and baskets, as well as information abouot enameling and hair-braiding.

This site contains a picture of the "Alfred Jewel", made for King Alfred of Wessex in the ninth century.

Music of the Middle Ages and Renaissance--This site contains extensive information about medieval and Renaissance music. This includes research materials, literature, manuscript sources, facsimile editions, and much more.

Medieval Music Glossary--This site, part of the Online Reference Book for Medieval Studies (ORB) site, contains a list of definitions of terms used in medieval music.

Medieval Women and Music--This is a very informative site about medieval women and their contributions to medieval music. Categories include Egeria: an Early Witness from 400 C.E, nuns and canonesses, women and polyphony, and more.

The Astrolabe--A general view of astrololabe principles. An astrolabe is an astronomy tool which was invented some 2,000 years ago and was widely used in the Middle Ages. The site includes a picture of an astrolabe made around 1400. It was made by Jean Fusoris (c.1365--1436), a graduate of the University of Paris who was quite an innovative scientist.

Medieval Feasts--This site, owned by an SCA feastcrat, contains the feastcrat's favorite recipes. The original versions and redactions are both included. The site also contains some great links.

Glossary of medieval cooking terminology--This page defines terms used in medieval cooking and brewing.

Eric's SCA Dance and Music Page--This site contains files of dance music. The site also has Playford's Country Dance manual linked to it, as well as some useful files.

Marat She’erah bat Shlomo, OL, OP. This Lady’s previous persona was Mistress Ellisif Flakkari.(mka Monica Cellio). She is from Aethelmarc and maintains this excellent site. It contains information about period music and dance, Viking topics, and loads of other cool stuff. Check it out!

This is an article about early medieval dance music by Marat She'erah bat Shlomo.

Medieval Sourcebook: Medieval Students' Songs. This is a page containing three songs written by medieval students.

Les Tres Riches Heures du Duc de Berry—This site contains the classic example of a late period book of hours. This famous Book of Hours dates from the early fifteenth century. This site contains a description and purpose of a medieval book of hours, some information about the artists, and their techniques. There are also descriptive explanations of each illumination reproduced, as well as some information about the owner of the book, Duc Jean de Berry (Duke John of Berry).

Italian Renaissance Costume Construction--This site contains instructions by two Laurels on how to construct your own pattern for an Italian Renaissance gown. The style they've chosen would have been worn between 1470 and 1540.

The Renaissance Tailor—This site includes an overview of sixteenth and seventeenth century clothing, sources, pattern development, tailoring techniques, and a glossary of tailoring vocabulary.

Du fait de cuisine--This amazing primary source is directly from a cookbook written in 1420 by the master cook to the Duke of Savoy.

Good general SCA A&S site, maintained by an SCA member.

The SCA Brew Historic Brewing Page--This site contains many links to sites with information for the SCA vintner. These include essays on medieval drinks, a booklet called "The Drunk Monk's Cookbook", information about beer, ale, wine, a page about the yeast controversy, and a page for those interested in A&S competition.

Medieval Cushion from Westphalia (Germany)--This site contains a photograph of an embroidered cushion from fourteenth or fifteenth century Westphalia. The site also contains an analysis of the stitches and colors of the embroidery.

This is an excellent site by Mistress Maddelina Jessamyn di Piemonti, O.L. It's about costuming in the Christian Kingdoms of Iberia, 10th through the 16th centuries.

Cynscribe—This excellent calligraphy site contains information on Arabic, Celtic, Hebrew, Chinese, and Japanese calligraphy. It also has information on bookbinding, papermaking, pens, heraldry, and much more.

Images of Medieval Art and Architecture: French cathedrals, abbeys, and other medieval churches. This site contains photographs of these impressive structures. It includes pictures of the town of Mont Saint-Michael which surrounds the cathedral. Photo galleries of other countries on this site are currently under construction.

Medieval North European Spindles and Whorls—This site is devoted to research into medieval Scandinavian spindles and whorls. The spindles and whorls date to between 800 and 1500 C.E.

Footwear of the Middle Ages—This is a page devoted to the description and methods of construction of medieval footwear. There is an emphasis on Britain and Scandinavia here, although there have been recent updates from Ireland and Germany. This is an online booklet written by Diarmuit Ui Dhuiin, mka Marc Carlson, for the use of SCA members wishing to construct period footwear.

The Costume Page—This is a list of costuming resources from every era all over the globe.

Frankish Costuming—This page is maintained by a member of a living history society called Angelcynn. They strive to be as authentic as possible. This lady was born in Germany and lives in England, so she decided to wear Frankish garb.

Early Occitan Literature—This is an excellent site devoted to the troubadours. The troubadours practiced their art in southern France, a region also known as Occitania, from a name of their vernacular language, Occitan. The first troubadour was one Duke Guilhelm d’Aquitania, to use the Occitan version of his name. We know him as Duke William of Aquitaine (1071—1127), the grandfather of Eleanor of Aquitaine.

Here are more troubadour and trouvere links:

The Musical Influence of Eleanor of Aquitaine--Eleanor of Aquitaine (c. 1122--1204), Duchess of Aquitaine, carried on the trend started by her grandfather by patronizing troubadours and musicians in that tradition in northern France and England. This site tells the story of her life as it relates to the spreading of this great tradition. The site contains many interesting links.

This is an excellent page on the Cantigas de Santa Maria, music from northern Spain, which was a "bridge" between southern France and al-Andalus, Islamic Spain.

Armenian Art History Site--This site contains pictures of art from medieval Armenia.

Aderlass & Seelentrost--I normally avoid advertisement sites like the plague, but this one is special. It has very high-quality pictures of medieval manuscripts which are being shown in an exhibition in a Berlin museum. This includes a picture of a manuscript from the classic story "Nibelungenlied", dating from around 1230. This site was recently featured on a list of choice SCA sites.

Les Capetians—Les Croisades (The Capetians—The Crusades)—This is an excellent site (in French) which contains sixty color slides. These include maps and manuscripts showing period architecture, furniture, clothing, and even the Inquisition at work.

Medieval and Renaissance Lathes—A lathe is an ancient tool that was used by the Egyptians, Greeks, Romans, and other ancient and medieval peoples. These artisans were called turners or throwers in England, but lathes were also used by pulleymakers, wheelwrights, chairmakers and other artisans.

Daz Buch von Guter Spise—This site contains the entire text of a cooking manual, which was compiled by a proto-notary of the Archbishop of Wurzburg. It was compiled between 1345 and 1354 and contains 101 recipes. The text is in German but is accompanied by an English translation. Some, but not all, of the recipes have been redacted.

Tudor England: Images. This site features portraits of members of this famous English dynasty by the age's finest artists.

The Goliards were poets who got their name from their patron saint, an alleged character named Golias, lord of the vagabonds. Their poems satirized the Church and exalted the joys and virtues of wine, women, and song. The famous Goliard poem "Confessions of Goliath", which is on this site, was written by a German knight known only to history as "the Archpoet". The poem is a mock confession, and was composed around 1160.

Medieval Love Songs—This site contains a list of troubadours, their lyrics, and the stories behind the lyrics.

Marie de France Society Site--This contains the lays, or poems, of the twelfth century Old French poet Marie de France.

Research by Duke Sir Cariadoc of the Bow—This site is still under construction; when it’s done, it will contain every bit of information His Grace and His Lady know!

Textiles in Anglo-Saxon and Viking England—This site contains information about textile-making in early period England. It covers the preparation of wool for spinning, the method of spinning wool and linen (the drop spindle), and information about the dyes they used to color their fabrics.

Everyman—This is an on-line version of the best-known morality play. Morality plays were allegorical dramas; they were used to teach the illiterate masses a certain important theme of Christianity.

Treasures From Europe’s National Libraries—This site contains pictures of many medieval artifacts, including fourteenth-century manuscripts from Russia, a calendar from fifteenth-century Slovakia, and a bookbinding made for Queen Elizabeth I of England in 1582.

The URL back to Home Page!



These sites are either online versions of medieval literary classics or commentary about them.

"The Song of Roland". Here's the medieval classic in its entirety online.

Excerpts from the Song of Roland--This site, part of the Medieval Sourcebook, contains excerpts from the Song of Roland about the Battle of Roncevalles. It's very interesting and easy to read.

The High History of the Holy Graal—The spelling of the word I’m used to spelling "Grail" isn’t the only strange thing about this site. Check it out, you won’t get bored!

Literary Primary Sources in the Evolution of the Arthurian Legend. This site contains primary sources on the legend of King Arthur. The first one dates from around 470 in the form of a letter from the bishop of Clermont-Ferrand, France, to a person named Riothamus, believed by some scholars to have been none other than Arthur! The site contains other sources, and ends with an account of a visit to a place associated with Arthur in the sixteenth century.

Niberlungenlied--This is the story of a prince named Siegfried. It's set in the early Middle Ages, but was written later on, during the age of chivalry a la "The Song of Roland". The story contains much early German folklore, and, in fact, has even been included in at least one list of Viking and Norse literature.

Song of the Cid (Cantar del mio Cid). This was written around the middle of the twelfth century. It's the story of the Castilian hero, Rodrigo Diaz de Bivar, commonly called "El Cid". The story takes up when the Cid is exiled from Castile by the King of Leon-Castile, Alfonso VI, in 1081, until shortly before his death in 1099. It is the story of the breakdown of the relationship of lord and vassal due to the shortcomings of the lord, not the vassal. The site contains background information on the poem as well as a translated version of the poem.

This is a site all about Dante, the greatest of medieval poets.

Amleth, Prince of Denmark--This story was written down by Saxo Grammaticus as part of a history of Denmark called "Gesta Danorum" (Latin, "Deeds of the Danes")around 1185, but it's from a much older oral tradition. It's the source of Shakespeare's "Hamlet".

What the heck was the Holy Grail? This essay, from the ECOLE Initiative site, explores the origins of the Holy Grail and finds them in pre-Christian Irish folklore.

Here's another look at the Holy Grail in the form of a short essay.

Chretien de Troyes, "Knight of the Cart".

This is an analysis of a work called "Legenda Aurea", the Golden Legend. This book, a collection of stories about medieval saints, was written around 1260 by Jacobus de Voragine, an Italian cleric. The word "Legenda" then simply meant "what is read". That's derived from the infinitive "legere", "to read". Only around 1600 did the word "legend" become synonymous with "fable". This book is a typical example of medieval hagiography; it is indeed shot through with fables. Still, it is believed that Jacobus used about 130 sources for this book. Try to beat that on your next research project....uh, no thanks.

The Luminarium. This excellent site is an anthology of medieval, Renaissance, and seventeenth-century English literature. The medieval section includes texts of "Sir Gawain and the Green Knight", the works of Chaucer, and the morality play "Everyman". The Renaissance section includes works by and about Sir Thomas More (1478-1535), Edmund Spencer’s "The Faerie Queen" about Queen Elizabeth I, and more.

Le Morte d’Arthur—Sir Thomas Malory (c. 1405—c. 1471) wrote this classic in prison. He is alleged to have committed robbery, rape, and possibly even murder—although who didn’t in England during the Wars of the Roses? William Caxton printed this work on his printing press around 1486. Malory called this work "Book of King Arthur and of His Noble Knights of the Round Table". For some reason Caxton chose a French name for the work, "Le Morte d’Arthur", ("The Death of Arthur") for the printed version and this title stuck.

The word "Utopia" is a pun in Greek; it means both "nowhere" and "good place". Sir Thomas More (1478--1535) used this word for his classic on the ideal society, which he actually thought to be unattainable. This is a text of this work, written in 1516.

This is an analysis of the contrast between the Sir Thomas More who wrote "Utopia" and the man himself.

Boethius (c. 480-c. 525) was one of the most influential thinkers of the early Middle Ages. This is a bilingual (in both Latin and English) reproduction of his famous work "The Consolation of Philosophy".

Giovanni Boccaccio wrote his famous "Decameron" during the Black Death in 1348. It’s about seven ladies and three men who’ve gotten the heck out of town to escape the deadly epidemic. They spend ten days in a luxurious villa in the country. Every day, each one of them tells a story. These ten stories make up the "Decameron".

Dante Alighiere (1265—1321), who was heavily influenced by the troubadour tradition of southern France and northern Italy, was the author of what many consider to have been the greatest poem of the Middle Ages. This poem, "The Divine Comedy", describes a visit to Hell, Purgatory, and Paradise.

Beowulf—This site, from the Medieval Sourcebook, is an Old English text of this masterpiece.

This is a translation of Beowulf into Modern English.

Little Blue Light--This is a web site dedicated to the French poet/outlaw Francois Villon (1431--after 1463-he disappeared from history). Villon wrote brilliant poetry maked by rare inspiration and sincerity. Meanwhile he joined a Paris gang called "Brotherhood of the Coquille", frequented taverns, committed at least one crime, and disappeared from Paris while waiting a trip to the gallows.

This page, from the Internet Medieval Source Book, features some works of Francois Villon.

Till Eulenspiegel was here! This is an essay on the continuing appeal of this medieval character.

HROTSVITHAE OPERA (Latin, "works of Hrotvitha") Roswitha von Gandersheim (c. 935—c.1005), whose name has various spellings (one being Hrosvita) and means "mighty voice", was a Benedictine nun who was the first German woman of letters. She composed dramas with religious themes, utilizing an original rhyme scheme and reviving drama as a literary genre to her era. She also unveiled the works of ancient Roman playwrights to her contemporaries. This site contains her works.

"London Lickpenny" is a satirical poem written in Middle English in the fifteenth century. It is about a poor man from Kent who goes to London to see a lawyer only to find that no one will even talk to him without a financial incentive. The text of the poem is on this site.

The Camelot Project—List and description of Knights and Ladies of Arthur’s Realm. The site contains essays about symbols and motifs of the Arthurian Cycle, such as the Holy Grail and Excalibur, place names like Avalon, and much more. (Would someone please tell them that their home page ends with a cryptic ctm? You can "back up" into it from this page for even more goodies.)

The URL to the Home Page!




Medieval Irish poetry—This site includes medieval Irish poems with translations into English and descriptions of medieval Irish poetic forms.

Medieval Scotland--This excellent site contains, among other things, a biography of St. Columba, who founded Scotland's first monastery on the island of Iona in 563 C.E. The biography was written in 690 C.E. The site contains a side-by-side view of the original Latin text and the English translation as well as photographs of medieval battle standards and the abbey of Iona. The site also contains useful information on medieval Scottish heraldry, a Scottish names index, linguistic resources, and other useful information about medieval Scotland.

This link on the Medieval Scotland site contains links to articles and resources on period Scottish clothing. This link was last updated on 15 June of this year and is an excellent site in its own right.

The making of the Kingdom of Fortriu, Eighth Century Scotland. A story of political developments in the Scottish Kingdom in the Eighth Century of our Era.

The Lothene Experimental Archeology site--Lothene (an earlier spelling of Lothian) is an Edinburgh-based organization based on re-enactment of eleventh-century Scotland, the era of Macbeth, Malcolm Canmore and St. Margaret. The site contains information on early Saxon textile arts and much more.

Melrose Abbey and the Mystery of Robert the Bruce's heart. This site is about the medieval Scottish building that Robert the Bruce's heart was buried in in 1329.

This site contains an essay of the history of Edinburgh.

Early Medieval Resources for Britain, Ireland, and Brittany. This site contains links to sites about the early history of these countries, from 400 until 793, when Lindisfarne was attacked by the Vikings. Categories include chronologies, calendar of saints, king lists, translations of primary sources, and more.

Flag of St. Andrew--This is the traditional flag of Scotland. It's based on the saltire, or the Cross of St. Andrew, the patron saint of Scotland.

Life of St. Columba (Columcille), 521-597, Irish monk who founded first monastery in Scotland, on the Isle of Iona in 563.

Scottish castles--This site is a map of Scotland, and you click on the castle images to get pictures and histories of each castle. Disregard the "requires Netscape" message, it works fine on my Internet Explorer. This is a great way to tour medieval Scotland!

Declaration of Arbroath. This declaration was drawn up by the Chancellor of Scotland in 1320 during the reign of Robert the Bruce. It urged the Pope to take into consideration the Scottish position on the English-Scottish conflict of the day, with a threat to continue the war if the Pope didn't sympathize with the Scots.

Mostly Medieval site, God and War, about medieval Dumfermline, Fife, Scotland. The site includes a photo gallery.

Siol nan Gaidheal--A site devoted to Dunadd, an early capital of Dal Riata.

Scottish historical buildings--This is a directory of sites of cultural landmarks, castles, houses, abbeys and churches.

This is another excellent Scottish castles site. The site includes many beautiful thumbnail pictures.

Who the heck was King Arthur? This site attempts to answer this question.

Scots Isles and Highlands--This site contains an interesting essay on life in the Highlands and Isles of Scotland between 1050 and 1493.

History of Scotland, 843--1296. In 843 Kenneth MacAlpin, King of the Scots, formed the Kingdom of Scotland by unifying the Scots and the Picts. In 1296, the Scots were locked in a massive battle with the Kingdom to the south, England, who wished to conquer them.

Linlithgow Palace--This site is about the famous castle known as the birthplace of Mary Queen of Scots.

Scotland's Early Medieval Sculptured Stones Pictures--This site describes a project to document stone sculptures dating from the fifth through the eleventh centuries. They were constructed by the peoples inhabiting the land at the time, the Picts, Scots, Britons and Angles. There has not been any documentation published on high crosses in the Highlands or Pictish symbol stones dating from this era since 1903.

Wow! Take a breathtaking virtual tour of St. Andrews', Scotland. St. Andrew is, of course, the patron saint of Scotland.

The Descent of MacTamhais Mor, the Chiefly Line of Clan MacTavish--The story of one of the most prominent of the Highland Clans of Scotland.

King Robert the Bruce of Scotland--This site contains the genealogy of Robert the Bruce and John Balliol. The site contains a list of the Kings of Scotland from Duncan I (1034-1040) to Robert the Bruce (1306-1329). The site also includes click-on enlargeable pix of Robert the Bruce.

The Sword of William Wallace--This site contains an essay about how the actions of William Wallace paved the way for Robert the Bruce, as King of Scotland, to kick the English the heck out of Scotland with the decisive Battle of Bannockburn in 1314.

Scottish History Timeline: Ninth through twelfth centuries.

Birth of the Scottish Nation. The first Scots were from Ulster, in Ireland. This is their story.

St. Kentigern, Apostle of Strathclyde. The medieval Kingdom of Strathclyde was located in what is now part of southern Scotland and northern England on the west coast. St. Kentigern, from Glasgow, lived in the sixth century of our era and is known as the "Apostle of Strathclyde". This is a lengthy paper on early Celtic religion and hagiography.

Where was the medieval Kingdom of Strathclyde? This site tells you.

Scroll down to the bottom of this site to find an excellent directory of early Scottish historical figures and events.

Scots Kings--This is a site containing the history of the Scots from their emigration from Ireland in the early Middle Ages through our period.

Friars in Medieval Scotland--This site is all about the mendicant orders in medieval Scotland.

This site is an admirer's tribute to Sir William Wallace, the great Scottish patriot.

Site about Edinburgh Castle, Scotland. The site contains a streaming video of the Castle.

MacLellan's Castle, Kirkcudbright, Scotland. This is a site dedicated to a castle in Kirkcudbright, Scotland, originally built in the sixteenth century on the site of an old convent which was shut down when Scotland became Protestant.

Scottish historical timeline, with a list of important Celtic battles.

Medieval Glasgow--This is the story of early Glasgow.

The Chatelaine's Scottish Castles--This is a site about the medieval castles of the Hebrides and the Western Isles.

Castle of Hunaudaye, Brittany.

Kings of Medieval Scotland and Wales.

About Medieval Scotland--This site contains a list of directories that examine Scotland in the Middle Ages. The site also contains useful links for the medieval re-enactor in general.

The Evolution of the Kilt, Scottish Highlands, 1100-1600 C.E. The Scots didn't wear kilts in the Middle Ages. This site traces the development of the kilt and tells what the Scots did wear in the Middle Ages. There is a link to information on early period Irish garb as well. This site is maintained by a re-enactor.

Names from Medieval Scotland.

The Four Annals--This is a primary source for Irish history.

Statutes of Kilkenny. This site contains the entire text of this historical document from late medieval Ireland.

Early Medieval Wales--This is a site about early medieval Welsh history, starting with the political unification of the sixth century. The site includes many fascinating links as well.

This site is a list of directories about medieval Wales.

Hanes Cymru--This site is a resource of medieval Welsh history.

Wales at the time of the Treaty of Montgomery, 1267. This site includes an account of the mapping of this land in 1267, information about its traditional language, and the meaning of its place names.

This site contains an essay that is an analysis of society in medieval Wales.

This site contains a history of Wales, with an emphasis on its kings.

Castles of Wales--This site is a directory of links to many important castles in Wales. You can even listen to the Welsh national anthem!

Notes on a Welsh history buff's favorite Welsh castles.

A brief essay on the leinte, the basic unisex garments of medieval Ireland, by an SCA member, Molly Kathryn MacGinn.

This page, from the Academy of St. Gabriel, contains a list of the most 100 popular names in early medieval Ireland. If you've chosen an Irish persona and are having trouble finding a name, look here.

This site contains several beautiful pictures of noted Irish medieval castles.

Medieval Irish kings.

This site contains a brief essay on the history of Christ Church, Dublin, one of Dublin's oldest buildings.

Medieval Sourcebook: Cain Adamnain: An Old Irish treatise on the Law of Adamnain--This site contains a legal treatise from early medieval Ireland.

This is an excellent site about medieval Ulster. The site contains many interesting links.

Kings of Ulridia--This site is about the history of one of the most significant parts of the Celtic Lands.

Medieval Sourcebook: Rights of the Dublin guild, 1192. This is a primary document with regulations of foreign merchants in Dublin.

A wonderful site about the medieval kingdoms of Scotland and Ireland. The site includes links to historical maps.

Celtic Inscribed Stones Project (CISP)--This site is an online database of stone structures in the Celtic lands from the early Middle Ages prepared by archeologists.

This is a site about Irish heraldry.

This is a site about Brian Boru (940-1014), a High King of Ireland.

A site dedicated to Owain Glyndwr (born c. 1353), Welsh independence leader. The site requires RealPlayer for sound.

The Two Nations of Medieval Ireland--This site, from the BBC, tells the story of how Ireland retained its Gaelic identity through its period of English rule starting in the twelfth century.

This site contains an essay about the development of the Pale around medieval Dublin.

This site is about the history and society of late medieval Ulster.

A site about St. Patrick, the patron saint of Ireland.

Warfare in Medieval Ireland--This site contains links to primary texts, including that of Giraldrus Cambrensis, books, articles, book reviews and links.

The Cattle-Raid of Cooley (Cuchulain), the central epic of the Ulster Cycle, reproduced here in Irish and modern English.

This is the official site of the Isle of Iona, the birthplace of Scottish Christianity. It was a popular destination of pilgrims up until the Protestant Reformation in Scotland.

Rule of St. Columba--This is the basis for Irish monasticism, an important force in early medieval Europe.

This site is about St. David, the patron saint of Wales.

Ireland’s history in maps—This excellent site is a sequence of historical maps of Ireland accompanied by historical information for each map. The first map is dated B.C, and tells the mythological beginning stories of the Irish people. There is a map for 100 A.D, 150 A.D, and each century thereafter. The first maps are mainly mythological; the historical accuracy starts to get stronger with the map from 500. This site also includes information about old Irish family names and clans as well as a historical timeline for each century. This site is an excellent resource for Irish name research.

Celtic Monasticism: History and Spirituality—This site is—uh, I’m speechless! It’s amazing! It contains virtual tours of ancient Celtic spiritual places at Glendalough, Ireland, Iona, Scotland (do not miss these tours!). The site also includes information on important Celtic saints like Patrick and Columba.

The URL for the Home Page!


Heitharviga Saga ("The Story of the Heath-Slayings")Only a part of this saga is left; some of the manuscript has been lost. It was written by an unknown writer in the twelfth century. Of all of the sagas, this one is the most antiquated stylistically. More than any of the other sagas, it displays what story-telling was like during the actual saga era.

History of the Norse Kings (Heimskringla) was written by Snorri Sturlson (c. 1179—1241). This text was translated into English in 1844.

Anglo-Saxon and Viking Works of the Needle: Some Artistic Currents in Cross-Cultural Exchange--This article, written by an SCA member, is about embroidery of the Vikings and Anglo-Saxons. The site also contains links to many other Viking resource sites.

Kiara's Naalbinding Page--This is an SCA member's site about this ancient Viking method of fabric construction. She describes projects she did for A&S competitions, and shows pictures of her work. The site also includes some useful links.

Personal grooming during the Viking era, an amusing and informative session with the Viking Answer Lady.

This is a site linked to the Viking Answer Lady site about the issue of the oath of fealty for a Viking persona in the SCA.

This is an excellent directory of Viking sites. Don't let the URL confuse you, the only connection to Prague or the Czech Republic is about Vikings in what is now the Czech Republic.

Do you need a Viking tunic? This site tells you how it's done.

This is a short essay on Viking York, or, as the Vikings called it, Jorvik.

Textiles in Anglo-Saxon and Viking England. The page, part of a much larger medieval re-enactment society's web site, includes pictures and links.

Vikings in Scotland.

Rollo of Normandy--This is a site all about Rollo, the Viking founder of Normandy.

The Viking Experience--This is a large Viking site with all sorts of useful information.

Norse legends--This site is great! Check it out!

Harald Bluetooth Gormson, King of Denmark and Norway, b. circa 911-d. 1 November 987. A site about this important Viking King.

Take a Viking voyage! In this site you can actually take a virtual tour of the Norse lands! Requires Quick Time.

Medieval Iceland and the Absence of Government--This is an interesting essay about the political atmosphere of medieval Iceland. They did just fine without a state apparatus.

Ordered anarchy: a discussion about the legal and political system of medieval Iceland.

Private Creation and Enforcement of Law--This is another interesting essay on the legal and political situation in medieval Iceland.

This is a wonderful site with many fascinating links to Viking history, literature and daily life sites. The site includes information about Viking food, dress, jewelry and religion.

The Norseman--This site is a directory of sites about the medieval Norse. Categories include the Danes, the Swedes, Viking ships, Viking games, daily life of Vikings, and more.

Viking Kings and Chieftains in Anglo-Saxon England. This is an account of Viking rule, the establishment, duration and fall of the Viking rule in the Danelaw.

Njal's Saga--This anonymous Icelandic saga was transcribed in the thirteenth century.

This page contains many sagas and Eddas in both Old Norse and Modern English.

The story of Balder, the beloved Norse deity known as "Balder the Beautiful".

The Sigurd Runestone--In Snorri Sturlson's "Prose Edda" and other Old Norse works, Sigurd killed a dragon and fended off a plot against his life. In the eleventh century a Swedish woman named Sigrid had a significant inscription related to Sigurd's story carved on a piece of natural stone. This site tells you everything you want to know about the inscription, including its location, its history, the outline of the story it's from, photographs and related links.

The Vikings Mini Unit Study--This is a wonderful site with a whole slew of links about the medieval Viking world.

This is a site about Viking coins.

This is a brief essay aout Harald Fairhair, who unified Norway in about 870.

Eric Bloodaxe, the last Irish Viking King of Northumbria, was killed in battle in 954 fighting the Angles. This site is about his life and reign.

This site is about the legal structure of medieval Iceland.

Kings and Queens of Norway.

Quick and Dirty Viking Women's Clothing--This site contains information on putting together four different styles of Viking women's ensembles, each from a different part of the Viking world.

Norse Gods, Goddesses, Dwarves, and Wights. This is a huge glossary of all things Norse.

Outlandish Nordmen--This is a Viking site by gentles from Outlands. It includes links, SCA merchants, and even Viking jokes.

"The Vikings". This site is a companion site to the NOVA program originally broadcast on 9 May 2000. The site includes a video exploration of a medieval Viking village in Sweden, secrets of Norse ships, instructions on how to write your name in runes, and much more!

Viking Ships--This site contains information on everything you ever wanted to know about Viking ships.

Build your own Viking ship! This site tells you how you can construct your own model Viking ship!

Archeological Finds of Ninth and Tenth Century Foodstuffs--This site covers evidence of foodstuffs from Viking Sweden, Norway, Scotland, and Ireland.

The Vikings--This is a very informative site, including information on just who the Vikings were, Viking warfare, Viking clothing, famous Vikings, and much more.

Norse Mythology Site—This site contains everything there is to know about Norse mythology. It includes information about the deities of the ancient Norse, their stories, and on-line versions of the Eddas.

Norse Creation story, from Snorri Stuluson’s "Prose Edda".

The URL for the Home Page!



Women’s’ Clothing in Kievan Rus—This is a detailed description of women’s clothing in Russia from the Kievan Rus period (here dated 800—1233; I don’t think any two scholars use the same dates!) through the fifteenth century. It describes the clothing of peasants, town dwellers, and princesses and noblewomen. It includes descriptions of hats, footwear, and jewelry.

Completorium—This early Polish music site includes MIDI files, MP3’s, lists of composers, essays, and sources. One of the songs included is the earliest known composition in Polish, "Bogurodzica" ("Mother of God"), which at one point was a war song of Polish knights.

The Slavic Interest Group, or SIG, provides this site. The Slavic Interest Group is an information network for Central and Eastern European arts and sciences. Peoples and nationalities represented include Russia, Poland, the Czechs, Moravians and Slovaks, Romania, Hungary, Croatia, Lithuania, Latvia, Georgia and Estonia.

Kievan Rus--This site contains a directory of sites about early period Russia and its neighbors. It is maintained by the founder of the SCA's Slavic Interest Group. It's a slow loader, so be patient.

Red Kaganate--This excellent site is in the process of being moved to its own domain. The Red Kaganate is a group devoted to the recreation of steppe nomad culture, the people of Turko-Mongol heritage. These peoples include the Magyars, the Khazars, the Bulgars, and many others.

Ladies, this site contains instructions on how to make your very own period Russian headdress, the kokoshnik.

Medieval Albania--This site is about medieval Albania.

Novgorod Chronicle--The Novgorod Chronicle is the most important basic source of written early Russian history. This site contains samples of the Chronicle detailing events from between the eleventh and fifteenth centuries.

This site contains information about and beautiful pictures of noted medieval Russian cathedrals.

The Art of Onfirm--This site contains pictures drawn on birchbark by a child from late twelfth century Novgorod.

Locative bynames in Medieval Russia--This is an article written by an SCA herald on Russian names. Categories include prepositions, nouns, patronymics and adjectives. The site contains a list of Russian names.

Maps of medieval Russia. This site contains a directory of maps related to medieval Russia and the Baltic area.

The Tatars: A Primary source account of the Tatar (Mongolian) invasion of Russia, written in 1243, courtesy of the Medieval Sourcebook.

This site contains a list of links about Ivan the Terrible. Some of the links require RealPlayer to listen to lectures about this controversial Russian tsar.

The Citadel of medieval Trebizand--This is a map of the medieval Armenian city of Trebizand.

Medicine and care of the sick in medieval Russia.

"Knight in Panther's Skin", an epic poem written in the twelfth century by a Prince of Georgia. It is commonly considered the main epic poem of Georgia.

This site contains an encyclopedia article about Shota Rustaveli, the great Georgian poet who composed "Knight in Panther's Skin".

This site contains an article about Tamar of Georgia, Georgia's most illustrious and respected medieval ruler.

Monuments of ancient Georgia--This site contains pictures of buildings constructed in medieval Georgia, showing a unique architectural style.

Physical anthropology from Huns to Volga Bulgars.

Predslava's Russian history trivia page--This site will entertain any Slavophilic trivia buff! Be patient, it's a slow loader, even on my high-speed connection.

History of the early Russian Orthodox Church.

History of Gomel, Belarus.

The Chronicle of Nestor--This primary source, found in chronicles of the Kiev Rus and originally called "The Tale of Bygone Years", was written down in the fourteenth century. Although tradition holds that it was written by a certain Monk of Nestor, thus its (other) name, it is generally agreed that it is a compilation of the work of several writers.

Medieval Russia--This is a wonderful site with a directory of sites of primary sources from medieval Russia. Get your information on period Russia here!

The Medieval Village of Mesta--This is a site about the medieval village of Mesta, in Chios, one of the most famous of Greek islands.

A history of beer, the national drink of the Czechs. This essay gives the history of beer in the Czech lands as well as elsewhere.

St. Stephen, the first King of Hungary (lived 975-1038).

History of Hungary, from the beginning of the Magyar State to the modern post-Communist era.

SCA Site about Eastern Europe. This site is maintained by SCA members and contains many interesting links.

Jadwiga of Poland--This is a brief essay about this Queen of Poland.

Castles and Knighthood in Belarus. This site contains pictures of medieval re-enactors in modern Belarus. It also contains a directory of links to medieval castles of Belarus.

Directory of Historical Links for Belarus--This is part of the WWW's Virtual Library, the Belarusian History Index.

The Mir Castle Complex--This is the UNESCO page for Mir Castle, a castle in Belarus started in the late fifteenth century. The site contains a link to another site with more information about the castle's history.

Medieval Poland--This is a site about the birth of the Polish nation.

Historical coins of Bulgaria.

Historical site about Galicia, now Western Ukraine. The site contains links to each major city of this ancient land.

The National Emblem of the Slovak Republic.

List of Russian medieval armor terms.

Vladimir, Prince of Kiev, c. 958-1015, famous for his acceptance of Eastern Orthodox Christianity in 988.,%20Prince%20of%20Kiev

Sviatoslav, Prince of Kiev, 945-972. The son of St. Olga of Kiev, who served as regent during his minority. His illegitimate son, Vladimir, accepted Eastern Orthodox Christianity in 988.

National Museum of Bosnia-Herzegovina, Sarajevo. Comprised of Departments of Archeology, natural history, ethnology, and a library.

The history of Bosnia-Herzegovina.

The history of medieval Bosnia-Herzegovina.

Battle of Grunwald, 1410. This is a site about this important battle in Poland in 1410.

A site about medieval Macedonia.

Late Medieval Slovenia--This site contains a history of Slovenia, 1200-1500.

Medieval Lithuania Legacy--This is a site about medieval Lithuania. The site contains various links to historical articles, some in Russian.

Timeline of Estonia.

National Museum of the History of Romania--This is the site of this museum, which just re-opened in Bucharest after a period of being closed.

This site contains a theory of the origin of the Vlachs.

This is a timeline of events in the Balkan Peninsula between 500--1000. This site contains pictures from present exhibitions at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City, as well as links to pictures from past exhibitions.

Medieval cities of Romania.

Medieval Romanian history. This site includes the history of Wallachia, Transylvania, and Moldavia.

Romanian Coins from the Fourteenth Century.

Postcards from Moldova--Prince Bogdan of Moldova won independence from Hungary in 1359. This site contains many pictures of medieval buildings in Moldova.

Food and drink in medieval Dubrovnik, then known as Ragusa.

Site about medieval and Renaissance literature in the former Yugoslavia.

Legacy of Medieval Serbia. This site contains an interesting essay on medieval Serbia.

The Rulers' Insignia in the Structural Evolution of Medieval Serbia--This site contains an essay analyzing the signigicance of the regalia, or "insignia", of the medieval Serbian rulers.

An essay about the origins of the modern Bulgarian language, a language derived from Old Church Slavonic. This language uses a modified version of the Cyrillic alphabet. It was revived following independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1878.

Medieval Serbian royal Ornaments--This site contains many pictures of medieval Serbian rulers, with comments on their garb and regalia.

This is another essay about medieval Bosnia and its neighbors.

Castles of Hungary--The English language section of this site is still under construction. Tibor Szabo, a Hungarian, has finished the Hungarian version of this site for those of you who read Hungarian, unlike me. The site also contains an English time line with some great thumbnail pictures.

In the Middle Ages some Saxons from Germany settled in Transylvania. This site includes an amazing photo gallery of the castles they built.

Romanian Castles--Site includes list of medieval castles of Romania; it includes the castle of the notorious Transylvania nobleman Vlad the Impaler.

Michael the Brave, Prince of Moldavia, Walachia, and Transylvania, died 1601.

An article about Gottschalk, ruler of the West Slavic peoples the Wends, who died 7 June 1066.

St. Stephen, first King of Hungary. This is an essay on the life and reign of St. Stephen, Hungary's patron saint.

Basil, Byzantine Emperor, circa 958--18 December 1025. This Emperor is commonly known as Basil Bulgaroktonos.

Kievian Rus site--This is a directory of sites with useful information about the Kievian Rus period.

St. Olga, wife of Prince Igor, accepted Christianity in 958, taking the baptismal name Elena (Helen), but was unsuccessful in converting her son Sviatoslav, who was killed in battle in 972. Sviatoslav's illegitimate son Vladimir, Olga's grandson, became Christian in 988, accepting the Eastern Orthodox brand of Christianity.

Vahdahunyad Castle--A look at a medieval Transylvanian castle. The site includes a thumbnail picture.

This is a map of Moravia dating from around 1570. The site also includes a "text" click that takes you to a verbal description of the map written with the map.

Novgorod was an important city in medieval Russia. This site contains numerous links to information about medieval Novgorod, including monuments, churches, reconstructed buildings, a Novgorod timeline, and more.

Castles of Ukraine. This site contains a number of links to pictures and information about castles in Ukraine.

Another site on castles in Ukraine, maintained by a native of the country.

Chortkiv Castle, Ukraine, dating from 1610. This castle was built when this part of the country was part of the Kingdom of Poland. In Poland and Austria it's called Chortkow, and the Russians call it Chortkov.

Castles of Slovakia.

A historical and culture overview of Croatia. The development of the early Croatian state is discussed here.

Croation Glagolithic Script manuscripts. This site is in Croatian and contains authentic medieval Croatian Glagolithic manuscript pictures.

Castles of Slovenia. This wonderful site has several links to castles in Slovenia.

This site contains links to many castles in Slovakia.

This is a castle tour of Hungary. The site includes much information in English and beautiful pictures.

Early Bulgars of the Balkans and Middle Volga--This site contains links with information about the emergence of the Bulgar peoples in these areas.

This site contains a brief history of the Volga Bulgarian state.

This is a site containing a history of Bulgaria.

Castles of Poland--Much of this site is in Polish, but some of the links are in English. Enjoy!

You can visit Wawel Castle in Krakow on this site.

Medieval coins of Poland.

This site is about medieval Krakow.

This is an article about St. Casimir of Poland.

This site is a very good site on medieval Byzantine studies.

This is a site on the medieval origins of the modern difficulties in the Balkans.

Do not pass go, do not collect $200, go to this site! It's breathtaking! There are a whole slew of links to Slavic and Eastern European studies sites of all kinds!

Art from medieval Hungary--This site contains links to sites about art in medieval Hungary and its environs, Austria, Poland and Bohemia. The site is maintained in Budapest.

This monument to the legendary founders of Kiev is not period--it's from 1982--but it's an interesting tribute to Kiev's medieval heritage.

Another interesting picture from Kiev. This is a picture of Zoloti Vorota (Golden Gates), the gates to the ancient fortress of Kiev. For centuries no one destroyed these gates. They were finally destroyed; this restoration dates from 1984.

Castles in Romania associated with Dracula.

This is a site about medieval Serbia. The site incluldes thumbnail pictures of beautiful buildings from medieval Serbia.

History of Medieval Serbia, Seventh through Fourteenth Centuries.

This is a wonderful site about architecture in medieval Serbia. The site includes pictures of beautiful buildings from medieval Serbia which still exist today, with informative write-ups on each building. Check it out!

This site contains a list of monarchs of Serbia.

Romanian history index--This is a huge site with many links to Romanian historical topics.

Castles of Romania--This site contains information about medieval castles of Romania.

Castle Tour of Romania--This site contains a list of medieval castles in Romania, along with information about them.

A site about Wenceslaus, the patron saint of Bohemia.

A map of the Czech lands dating from 1518. The site is in Czech, but the pictures are amazing! Besides the map the site contains pictures of period Czechs riding in horse drawn carriages and coats of arms.

This is a site about mining and building in medieval Serbia.

Castles on the Danube--These castles are all in Serbia. The site contains high quality pictures of them.

Legacy of Medieval Lithuania--This site contains links to various aspects of Lithuania in the Middle Ages.

Estonian Literature: Strangers Creating Culture--This site contains three period documents about Estonia, all written in German. In period, the Estonian language was mainly used for oral tradition, and written tradition, which seems to have been alien to Estonian culture, was written by foreigners in German. German was used because the nation's overlords were Germans. Nevertheless this contains the first documentation of the Estonian language--for example, "maleva" is an Estonian word; it means army.

The Prague Fragments--This is the oldest extent example of Czech Church Glagolithic text, dating from before 1000. The Glagolithic alphabet was introduced into Moravia by the "apostles of the Slavs", Cyril and Methodius.

Cultural History of Macedonia--This site contains information on the literature, architecture, and artistic achievements of the nation known as Macedonia.

A History of Macedonia--This site contains links to various aspects of medieval Macedonia.

The Slavs and the Bulgars came together to create the nation we know as Bulgaria. This site gives information on medieval Bulgaria.

The Bogomils were a religious sect of medieval Bulgaria in the Gnostic tradition. This site is all about them.

This is another site about the Bogomils.

This is another site on the Bogomils, with interesting links to pages about Gnosticism, which is where their philosophical roots were.

This is a charming site with some Bulgarian folklore links.

This is an ancient Czech legend courtesy of Radio Prague.

This is a cursory history of the Magyar people. They have a complex history and settled the nation we now know as Hungary.

This site lists the nomadic tribes of the steppes, including the Bulgars, the Huns, the Scythians, and many others, and gives the background of each one. The site also contains links to historical towns of Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and other Eastern European nations.

An Introduction to the History of the Khazar state--This site contains text and a map about an interesting and unique culture, that of the Khazars, a Turkic people. This kingdom flourished between the fifth and thirteenth centuries in what is now Russia, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan. They adopted Judaism as their religion, and founded the city of Kiev.

This is a collection of medieval Russian manuscripts. The entire site is in Russian, which I don't read, either. The dates are in Roman numerals.

"Ban" was a title used in several Eastern European countries in the Middle Ages. This site contains lists of rulers of Wallachia, Bosnia, and Croatia.

Two medieval Croatian alphabets can be viewed at this site. These alphabets are the Croatian Glagolitic script and the Croatian Cyrillic script. The site contains pictures of these scripts in religious texts from Croatia and its environs.

Croatian History--This site contains information on the development of this important Slavic nation. This is a very informative site.

Czech literature through the Hussite Wars--This site contains an essay about literature in the Czech language (as opposed to Latin), from its origins in the thirteenth century until the Hussite Wars in the early fifteenth century. The Hussite Wars era was an era of intense Czech nationalism during which Jan Hus introduced characters into the Czech alphabet to better adapt the language to the Roman alphabet. If I had these characters on this keyboard I could give you the Old Czech word for "pipe", from which we get our word "pistol".

Translation of an Old Polish poem by Stanislaw Ciolek (1382-1437. The name of the poem is "Praise of Cracow".

Russian icons index—This site contains reproductions of period Russian icons.

Revenge of Olga, Princess of Kiev—This site tells the story of early Kiev. The first ruler of Kiev was Oleg, who became Prince of Kiev in 862. His son and successor, Igor, was killed by a Slavic tribe called the Derevlians. His widow, Olga, had her revenge.

Defending the Emperor, 1395--This is a primary source! It's an essay written by the Patriarch of Constantinople, of the Eastern Orthodox Church, on the importance of protecting and preserving the institution of the monarchy in the latter stages of the Byzantine Empire, even though by then the Patriarch had become far more powerful than the Emperor!

Timeline of Great Moravia--This is the only timeline of the first Slavic state in Central Europe on the Web!

This is a map of Eastern Slavic and adjacent tribes in the ninth century.!.php

Trade Routes in Ukraine, circa 1300. This is a map of Ukraine and its neighbors with trade routes used in our era shown.

A description of the Mongols written in 1243 from the Internet Medieval Sourcebook.

<>URL for the Home Page!




The Koran--The holy book of the Islamic faith is here online.

This is a site about the life and poetry of the great Persian-born poet Jelaluddin Rumi, a noted Sufi mystic, the founder of the Whirling Dervishes.

This is another site about Rumi.

Dar Anahita--This is a wonderful Middle Eastern site, maintained by an SCA member. The site includes information on period Middle Eastern clothing, food, and other aspects of life of interest to the re-enactor.

Islamic Art--This site contains photographs of works of art, including glasswork, manuscripts, metalwork, and much more, from Islamic nations dating from the faith's beginnings in the seventh century to our times. The site contains explanatory text for each object shown.

History of medieval Syria.

Medieval Sourcebook: This is a primary account of a crucial battle that occurred in Syria on 20 August 636.

An astrolabe from 1559. The astrolabe is a great scientific discovery from ancient Greece. It was bequeathed to us by the Muslim scholars of medieval Spain and Syria, like so much of Greek wisdom. This particular astrolabe was made in Louvain, Belgium, and is a perfect showcase for showing how much of European culture originated with the Muslims.

Medieval castles in the Middle East--This site contains links to pictures of historically significant castles in the Middle East.

The medieval Middle East--This site contains links to info about Persian costuming.

This is a fine medieval Middle Eastern site maintained by an SCA member.

Islamic History in Arabia and the Middle East--Do not pass go, do not collect $200--go to this site! It's amazing! It contains much very interesting information about life in the Islamic world in the Middle Ages.

The Assassins were a Shi'ite Muslim sect who are mostly known to us by their Sunni enemies. This is an essay about this sect.

This is an academic essay about the invasion of a branch of the Turks into what is now Turkey, one of the most pivotal events in the history of civilization.

Medieval Islam--This is a directory of sites about medieval Islamic cultures.

Maps of the Medieval Islamic world.

This is a site about Suleiman, the greatest of the Ottoman Sultans.

Modern History Sourcebook: A Visit to the Wife of Suleiman the Magnificent--This is a primary account of a visit to the Sultana of the Ottoman Empire in the sixteenth century.

The conquest of Malta by the Turks.

A site about Sultan Mehmed II Fatih, the conquerer of Constantinople.

Medieval Sourcebook: Ibn Rusd, known to Westerners as Averroes, who lived between 1126-1198, was one of medieval Islam's great philosophers. This is his work "On the Harmony of Religions and Philosophy".

Medieval Islamic medical manuscripts. Medicine and the care of the sick were very important in medieval Islamic culture. This site is all about it.

This is a site about historical Istanbul.

The Sultans of the Ottoman Empire.

The Ottoman rulers, from Osman (1281-1326) to Mehmed VI (1918-1922).

The Seljuk Turks and Persian art. This site contains a link to an interesting Persian literature site.

Medieval Muslim knitting--This site contains information about knitting in period Egypt.

The Turkic Peoples--This site contains an essay on the Turkic peoples, who included the Ottoman Turks and the powerful Seljuk Turks who wielded enormous power in the medieval Middle East.

This page contains a listing of traditional Turkish folk instruments.

Middle Eastern resource site from Labyrinth.

Mosques of Turkey. These mosques date from our period and are breathtakingly beautiful buildings.

This site is about the early Ottoman ruler Osman, who gave his name to the greatest dynasty of Turkish rulers.

Royalty page about the Ottoman sultans. The site contains many interesting links.

Historical maps of Turkey--This site includes medieval maps of Turkey, as well as those from both earlier and later periods.

Middle Eastern traditional music--This site contains information about traditional music of the various Middle Eastern nations.

Illuminated miniature of Persian Shah Abbas I (1571-1629) embracing his "wine boy".

Food of Medieval Persia. This page from the Florilegium contains documentation of period Persian food.

Medieval Persia--This site has various links to different aspects of medieval Persian history.

Middle Eastern names. This site contains traditional names of the Middle East.

Medieval city of Ani, now in Turkey, major medieval Armenian city. The site contains a map with links to pictures of the city's historical buildings.

Sports, Games, and Recreation in Medieval Muslim Societies--This site is all about sports and games in the medieval Muslim world.

Medieval Persia--This is a list of things produced, made, and imported into medieval Persia.

The Seljuk Turks--This site contains an informative essay about this important branch of the Turkish people.

The Islamic World to 1600. This site is about the arts, learning and knowledge (philosophy) of the medieval Islamic world. The site includes essays about eight eminent medieval Muslim scholars.

This is a site for Topkapi Palace, for four hundred years the home of the Sultans of the Ottoman Empire in Istanbul.

This site contains three articles written by three different modern Turkish historians. The articles are about caravanserais, a network of inns founded in Turkey and other Islamic lands as a public service.

This is the UNESCO Web site on caravanserais.

This is a medieval Turkish story about a girl and her two evil sisters.

Early Shia Muslim World--This site contains an essay about early Shia Muslim civilization, centered in Persia.

This site contains an informative and well-researched essay about hospitals and health care in general in medieval Islamic culture.

Islamic Science--This page, from a popular alchemy site, contains links to various resources for Islamic science.

This is a work by one of medieval Islam's most brilliant scholars, Ibn Sina, known as Avicenna in the West. It's called "On Medicine".

Art of Arabic Calligraphy—This site contains four articles on the history of alphabets in the Middle East and the development of Arabic calligraphy.

Asim’s Middle Eastern Dance Link Site—This site has links to both mundane and SCA Middle Eastern dance and music sites.

Coffee and Coffeehouses in the Medieval Middle East—This online booklet contains a history of coffee. It starts with its obscure origins in Yemen and follows the growth of its popularity in the Islamic world, along with accounts of disputes amongst Moslems as to the morality of its consumption.

Flowers of Silk and Gold: Four Centuries of Ottoman Embroidery—This site features pictures of traditional Ottoman Turkish fabrics embroidered with ancient techniques and styles.

Mistress Zaynab’s excellent site has instructions on how to make your own Turkish garb, ladies, and headdresses, too! The site contains pictures of her Laureling ceremony.

This site contains an anonymous Cookbook from thirteenth-century Andalusia.

Legacy of Genghis Khan: Courtly Art and Culture in Western Asia, 1256--1353, Los Angeles County Museum of Art. This site contains information on the Mongols in China, Iran, the Mongols and Islam, and much more. This is a flash site.

Anna Commena (1083--after 1148) was a Byzantine princess who wrote this account of her family's struggles with the Turks and the Crusaders. These struggles led to the transformation of a large part of the Byzantine Empire into the Ottoman Empire.

The Travels of Ibn Battuta--Ibn Battuta, a native of Tangiers, left his birthplace in the month of Rajab in 725 (1325 C.E. by the Julian Calendar reckoning) on his way to Mecca. He went to Alexandria, sailed up the Nile, visited Mecca, not to mention Syria, Persia, Constantinople and possibly half the other nations on the planet during the twenty-nine years of his travels.

Palace attire and garments: the costumes of the Sultans. This site contains pictures of the actual garb worn by sultans, dating back to the fifteenth century.

This site contains a list of books about the medieval Middle East. The owner is a Middle Eastern persona in the SCA, and this is her personal library.

Persian clothing—This site is a work in progress, but it already contains some very impressive research and other useful information about Persian clothing.

URL for the Home Page!




King Rene’s Tournament Book—This site contains a Modern English translation of a book written around 1460 by Rene, a French claimant to the thrones of Jerusalem and Sicily.

Sword Tours of the Middle Ages--Take a virtual tour of a medieval sword museum! This site contains many pictures of swords dating from between 400 C.E. and 1450 along with detailed descriptions of each part of the swords.

This is an interesting article about the longbow.

This is a terrific longbow site. The site includes information about longbows, crossbows, even a joke page about the folk etymology of an undisclosed weapon......go see!

The Origin and Arrival of the Galloglaith (Galloglass). This is a site about these famous mercenaries who fought in Ireland in the late Middle Ages.

The Association for Renaissance Martial Arts maintains this site. The site contains many period fencing texts. These include the oldest sword and buckler manual, dating from circa 1300, as well as Italian and Scandinavian texts.

This site contains photographs of fifteenth-century gunpowder artillery which are in museums.

Medieval war machines--This is a site about medieval war machines. It's a French site, English text is available.

This page contains a history of medieval weapons. It's part of the Castles of Britain site.

Homepage for Eric Brown, AKA Caladin Ironhearth, Esq. This is the site of an SCA fighter. It contains instructions on how to make a sword, a shield, and a simple shield basket. It also contains a knights' essay of melee tactics, armor making links, and other stuff currently under construction.

Secrets of the Norman Conquest--This site uses primary documentation to prove a hypothesis that William and his army landed at Hastings, not Pevensey as we were all taught in school. Judge for yourself....

Jan Zizka (c. 1370-1424) was a brilliant, innovative military strategist from southern Bohemia, now the Czech Republic. This article describes his career and his military strategies. Zizka made ample use of handguns in warfare. The word "pistol", originally from the Czech word for "pipe", came into general use during his career.

Chronique: The Knighthood, Chivalry and Tournaments Resource Library. This is the ultimate SCA fighter's resource site. It contains information about both period and modern tourneys. The site contains some information about a medieval knightly order, the Order of the Black Swan (French, 1350), along with the Order's Ordinances, in French. A translation is in the works. The site is still under construction, due to the owner's change of ISP, but the finished product will be useful to every knight, squire, and anyone else who picks up a stick on the weekend.

This is an account of the Battle of Grunwald, fought on 15 July 1410 between the Teutonic Knights along with their allies against the armies of Poland and Lithuania.

This is an essay about the development of the chivalric ethic among medieval warriors.

Arador Armour Library--This site contains tons of information about medieval armor. It includes detailed directions on making your own armor, the use of metal and leather in armor-making, photos of period armor in European collections, a discussion list, and more.

This is a short history of the longbow.

De Re Militari: The Society for Medieval Military History. This site, last updated on August 1, 2004, has links to information for scholars of medieval military history, resources for the study of medieval warfare, and much more.

Dylan’s Fencing Page—This site contains several period texts on rapier combat. It also contains links to other SCA fencing sites.

This page has a short article about one of the most pivotal battles in the Middle Ages, the Battle of Tours, fought between Christians and Moslems in 732 C.E.

Dan Danulf's Academy of Defense: Teaching the Noble Science of Elizabethan Fencing in the SCA--This site includes historical research on fencing, safety and marshalling, and topics of general interest to the SCA fencer.

The Perfect Armor: Instructions by Duke Sir Cariadoc of the Bow from his Miscellany on making hardened leather armor using beeswax for the hardening of the leather. His Grace has since changed his mind about the periodicity of this method of leather-hardening and now uses water for this purpose. Consequently there are instructions on how to use water to harden leather and make armor out of it.

The Lithuanian army in the Middle Ages. This site contains an excellent military history of Lithuania during the period 1132 and 1435. It includes a description of the country’s army and lists its principal enemies for this period.

The URL to the Home Page!


Academy of St. Gabriel Library—This site contains information and advice on name and persona research.

Period German names. These names include Jewish and Silesian names.

College of Arms official site--This is the official web site of the English College of Arms, who use the system of arms and heraldry that the SCA bases its practice of heraldry on. The site includes a history of the College, information about the officers of the College, who are called heralds, and everything there is to know about arms, past and present.

Medieval Name Archives—This site contains tons of information about names from many languages and nationalities used by SCAdians. Perhaps you can get that tricky Czech name by Laurel! Oh, yes, if you do please let me know how you did it as my own persona is Czech and I’ve got a French name!

Medieval Pavilion Resources--Do you need a tent or a pavilion for your events? Chances are that you'll need one at least once! This site is still under construction, but it already includes much useful information about tents and pavilions. The site is maintained by Baroness Mira Silverlork, O.L.

Chirurgeon’s Point—Links, forms, articles and other items for the SCA chirurgeon.

This site contains instructions for making medieval furniture, including a bed.

Would you like to know how the Rialto got its name? OK, it was a bridge in medieval Venice—but how did that bridge get its name? Find out here!

URL to the Home Page!



This material may be used for any educational purpose. I only ask that you mention my name if you quote this reference. Happy surfing!